Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere

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Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere. / Cockell, Charles S.; Voytek, Mary A.; Gronstal, Aaaron L; Finster, Kai; Kirshtein, Julie D; Howard, Kieren; Reitner, Joachim; Gohn, Gregory S.; Sanford, Ward E.; Horton, Jr., J. Wright; Kallmeyer, Jens; Kelly, Laura; Powars, David S.

In: Astrobiology, Vol. 12, No. 3, 2012.

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Cockell, CS, Voytek, MA, Gronstal, AL, Finster, K, Kirshtein, JD, Howard, K, Reitner, J, Gohn, GS, Sanford, WE, Horton, Jr., JW, Kallmeyer, J, Kelly, L & Powars, DS 2012, 'Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere', Astrobiology, vol. 12, no. 3. https://doi.org/10.1089/ast.2011.0722

APA

Cockell, C. S., Voytek, M. A., Gronstal, A. L., Finster, K., Kirshtein, J. D., Howard, K., ... Powars, D. S. (2012). Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere. Astrobiology, 12(3). https://doi.org/10.1089/ast.2011.0722

CBE

Cockell CS, Voytek MA, Gronstal AL, Finster K, Kirshtein JD, Howard K, Reitner J, Gohn GS, Sanford WE, Horton, Jr. JW, Kallmeyer J, Kelly L, Powars DS. 2012. Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere. Astrobiology. 12(3). https://doi.org/10.1089/ast.2011.0722

MLA

Vancouver

Cockell CS, Voytek MA, Gronstal AL, Finster K, Kirshtein JD, Howard K et al. Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere. Astrobiology. 2012;12(3). https://doi.org/10.1089/ast.2011.0722

Author

Cockell, Charles S. ; Voytek, Mary A. ; Gronstal, Aaaron L ; Finster, Kai ; Kirshtein, Julie D ; Howard, Kieren ; Reitner, Joachim ; Gohn, Gregory S. ; Sanford, Ward E. ; Horton, Jr., J. Wright ; Kallmeyer, Jens ; Kelly, Laura ; Powars, David S. / Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere. In: Astrobiology. 2012 ; Vol. 12, No. 3.

Bibtex

@article{36f6a0f345d94a23a993f059d42b808e,
title = "Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere",
abstract = "Although a large fraction of the world's biomass resides in the subsurface, there has been no study of the effects of catastrophic disturbance on the deep biosphere and the rate of its subsequent recovery. We carried out an investigation of the microbiology of a 1.76 km drill core obtained from the 35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA, with robust contamination control. Microbial enumerations displayed a logarithmic downward decline, but the different gradient, when compared to previously studied sites, and the scatter of the data are consistent with a microbiota influenced by the geological disturbances caused by the impact. Microbial abundance is low in buried crater-fill, ocean-resurge, and avalanche deposits despite the presence of redox couples for growth. Coupled with the low hydraulic conductivity, the data suggest the microbial community has not yet recovered from the impact 35 million years ago. Microbial enumerations, molecular analysis of microbial enrichment cultures, and geochemical analysis showed recolonization of a deep region of impact-fractured rock that was heated to above the upper temperature limit for life at the time of impact. These results show how, by fracturing subsurface rocks, impacts can extend the depth of the biosphere. This phenomenon would have provided deep refugia for life on the more heavily bombarded early Earth, and it shows that the deeply fractured regions of impact craters are promising targets to study the past and present habitability of Mars. Key Words: Asteroid—Impacts—Subsurface biosphere—Subterranean environment—Geobiology. Astrobiology 12, 231–246.",
author = "Cockell, {Charles S.} and Voytek, {Mary A.} and Gronstal, {Aaaron L} and Kai Finster and Kirshtein, {Julie D} and Kieren Howard and Joachim Reitner and Gohn, {Gregory S.} and Sanford, {Ward E.} and {Horton, Jr.}, {J. Wright} and Jens Kallmeyer and Laura Kelly and Powars, {David S.}",
year = "2012",
doi = "10.1089/ast.2011.0722",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
journal = "Astrobiology",
issn = "1531-1074",
publisher = "Mary AnnLiebert, Inc. Publishers",
number = "3",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Impact disruption and recovery of the deep subsurface biosphere

AU - Cockell, Charles S.

AU - Voytek, Mary A.

AU - Gronstal, Aaaron L

AU - Finster, Kai

AU - Kirshtein, Julie D

AU - Howard, Kieren

AU - Reitner, Joachim

AU - Gohn, Gregory S.

AU - Sanford, Ward E.

AU - Horton, Jr., J. Wright

AU - Kallmeyer, Jens

AU - Kelly, Laura

AU - Powars, David S.

PY - 2012

Y1 - 2012

N2 - Although a large fraction of the world's biomass resides in the subsurface, there has been no study of the effects of catastrophic disturbance on the deep biosphere and the rate of its subsequent recovery. We carried out an investigation of the microbiology of a 1.76 km drill core obtained from the 35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA, with robust contamination control. Microbial enumerations displayed a logarithmic downward decline, but the different gradient, when compared to previously studied sites, and the scatter of the data are consistent with a microbiota influenced by the geological disturbances caused by the impact. Microbial abundance is low in buried crater-fill, ocean-resurge, and avalanche deposits despite the presence of redox couples for growth. Coupled with the low hydraulic conductivity, the data suggest the microbial community has not yet recovered from the impact 35 million years ago. Microbial enumerations, molecular analysis of microbial enrichment cultures, and geochemical analysis showed recolonization of a deep region of impact-fractured rock that was heated to above the upper temperature limit for life at the time of impact. These results show how, by fracturing subsurface rocks, impacts can extend the depth of the biosphere. This phenomenon would have provided deep refugia for life on the more heavily bombarded early Earth, and it shows that the deeply fractured regions of impact craters are promising targets to study the past and present habitability of Mars. Key Words: Asteroid—Impacts—Subsurface biosphere—Subterranean environment—Geobiology. Astrobiology 12, 231–246.

AB - Although a large fraction of the world's biomass resides in the subsurface, there has been no study of the effects of catastrophic disturbance on the deep biosphere and the rate of its subsequent recovery. We carried out an investigation of the microbiology of a 1.76 km drill core obtained from the 35 million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact structure, USA, with robust contamination control. Microbial enumerations displayed a logarithmic downward decline, but the different gradient, when compared to previously studied sites, and the scatter of the data are consistent with a microbiota influenced by the geological disturbances caused by the impact. Microbial abundance is low in buried crater-fill, ocean-resurge, and avalanche deposits despite the presence of redox couples for growth. Coupled with the low hydraulic conductivity, the data suggest the microbial community has not yet recovered from the impact 35 million years ago. Microbial enumerations, molecular analysis of microbial enrichment cultures, and geochemical analysis showed recolonization of a deep region of impact-fractured rock that was heated to above the upper temperature limit for life at the time of impact. These results show how, by fracturing subsurface rocks, impacts can extend the depth of the biosphere. This phenomenon would have provided deep refugia for life on the more heavily bombarded early Earth, and it shows that the deeply fractured regions of impact craters are promising targets to study the past and present habitability of Mars. Key Words: Asteroid—Impacts—Subsurface biosphere—Subterranean environment—Geobiology. Astrobiology 12, 231–246.

U2 - 10.1089/ast.2011.0722

DO - 10.1089/ast.2011.0722

M3 - Journal article

VL - 12

JO - Astrobiology

JF - Astrobiology

SN - 1531-1074

IS - 3

ER -