Imaging of the Hydrogen Subsurface Site in Rutile TiO2

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  • Georg Herborg Enevoldsen, Denmark
  • Henry Pinto, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland
  • Adam S Foster, Tampere University of Technology, Finland
  • Mona Christine Robenhagen Jensen, Denmark
  • Werner Hofer, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
  • Bjørk Hammer
  • Jeppe Vang Lauritsen
  • Flemming Besenbacher
  • Department of Physics and Astronomy
  • Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center
From an interplay between simultaneously recorded noncontact atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy images and simulations based on density functional theory, we reveal the location of single hydrogen species in the surface and subsurface layers of rutile TiO2. Subsurface hydrogen atoms (H-sub) are found to reside in a stable interstitial site as subsurface OH groups detectable in scanning tunneling microscopy as a characteristic electronic state but imperceptible to atomic force microscopy. The combined atomic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory study demonstrates a general scheme to reveal near surface defects and interstitials in poorly conducting materials.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Volume102
Issue13
Pages (from-to)136103-136107
Number of pages4
ISSN0031-9007
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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