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Heart rate variability analysis indicates preictal parasympathetic overdrive preceding seizure-induced cardiac dysrhythmias leading to sudden unexpected death in a patient with epilepsy

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Evidence for seizure-induced cardiac dysrhythmia leading to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) has been elusive. We present a patient with focal cortical dysplasia who has had epilepsy for 19 years and was undergoing presurgical evaluation. The patient did not have any cardiologic antecedents. During long-term video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring, following a cluster of secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), the patient had prolonged postictal generalized EEG suppression, asystole, followed by arrhythmia, and the patient died despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Analysis of heart rate variability showed a marked increase in the parasympathetic activity during the period preceding the fatal seizures, compared with values measured 1 day and 7 months before, and also higher than the preictal values in a group of 10 patients with GTCS without SUDEP. The duration of the QTc interval was short (335-358 msec). This unfortunate case documented during video-EEG monitoring indicates that autonomic imbalance and seizure-induced cardiac dysrhythmias contribute to the pathomechanisms leading to SUDEP in patients at risk (short QT interval). A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEpilepsia
Volume55
Issue7
Pages (from-to)e67-e71
ISSN0013-9580
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2014

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