Genetic architecture of ADHD and overlap with other psychiatric disorders and cognition-related phenotypes

M. Ribasés, M. Mitjans, C. A. Hartman, M. Soler Artigas, D. Demontis, H. Larsson, J. A. Ramos-Quiroga, J. Kuntsi, S. V. Faraone, A. D. Børglum, A. Reif, B. Franke*, B. Cormand*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperReviewResearchpeer-review


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) co-occurs with many other psychiatric disorders and traits. In this review, we summarize and interpret the existing literature on the genetic architecture of these comorbidities based on hypothesis-generating approaches. Quantitative genetic studies indicate that genetic factors play a substantial role in the observed co-occurrence of ADHD with many different disorders and traits. Molecular genetic correlations derived from genome-wide association studies and results of studies based on polygenic risk scores confirm the general pattern but provide effect estimates that are smaller than those from twin studies. The identification of the specific genetic variants and biological pathways underlying co-occurrence using genome-wide approaches is still in its infancy. The first analyses of causal inference using genetic data support causal relationships between ADHD and comorbid disorders, although bidirectional effects identified in some instances point to complex relationships. While several issues in the methodology and inferences from the results are still to be overcome, this review shows that the co-occurrence of ADHD with many psychiatric disorders and traits is genetically interpretable.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105313
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Comorbitidy
  • Cross-disorder genetics
  • Genetic correlation
  • Genome-wide association study
  • Pleiotropy
  • Polygenic risk score


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