Fava beans can substitute soybean meal and rapeseed meal as protein source in diets for lactating dairy cows

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DOI

The effect of replacing mixtures of wheat and soybean meal and wheat and rapeseed meal by toasted fava beans, and the effect of toasting fava beans on feed intake, milk yield, and composition of milk and feces were investigated using 40 Holstein cows in each of two 4 × 4 Latin square design trials conducted simultaneously. In trial 1, the 4 treatment concentrates were untreated fava beans, toasted fava beans, 42% soybean meal + 58% rolled wheat, and a 21, 29, and 50% mix of soybean meal, rolled wheat, and toasted fava beans, respectively [on dry matter (DM) basis]. In trial 2, the 4 experimental treatments were untreated fava beans, toasted fava beans, 64% rapeseed meal + 36% rolled wheat, and a 32, 18, and 50% mix of rapeseed meal, rolled wheat, and toasted fava beans, respectively (on DM basis). In each trial, 16 primiparous and 24 multiparous cows were fed the treatment concentrates as part of a partial mixed ration, of which the forage consisted of 50% corn silage and 50% grass-clover silage. Substitution of soybean meal and wheat or rapeseed meal and wheat with toasted fava beans did not affect total DM intake, and no linear effects were observed on milk yield or energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield. However, in trial 2, a quadratic effect was observed on milk yield when substituting rapeseed meal and wheat with toasted fava beans. In both trials, substitution of soybean meal and wheat or rapeseed meal and wheat with toasted fava beans increased milk lactose concentration and decreased milk protein yield and concentration of protein in milk. In both trials, fecal concentration of starch increased linearly when substituting soybean meal and wheat or rapeseed meal and wheat with toasted fava beans. In trial 2, fecal concentration of P decreased when substituting rapeseed meal and wheat with toasted fava beans. In situ investigations showed increased rumen undegradable protein concentration and thereby increased estimated metabolizable protein supply when toasting fava beans. However, in both trials, milk protein yield and concentration decreased when cows were fed toasted compared with untreated fava beans. Furthermore, when cows were fed toasted compared with untreated fava beans in trial 1, milk yield, ECM yield, and nitrogen efficiency decreased. We conclude that toasted fava beans could substitute soybean meal and wheat or rapeseed meal and wheat with regard to ECM yield. However, milk protein yield decreased when substituting soybean meal and wheat or rapeseed meal and wheat with toasted fava beans. Compared with untreated fava beans, toasting had no positive effect on milk production and nitrogen efficiency.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume104
Issue5
Pages (from-to)5508-5521
Number of pages14
ISSN0022-0302
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2021

    Research areas

  • Vicia faba, field bean, protein supplement, toasting

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