Evaluation of renal oxygenation by BOLD-MRI in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes and matched controls

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BACKGROUND: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) accounts for ∼50% of end-stage kidney disease. Renal hypoxia is suggested as a main driver in the pathophysiology underlying chronic DKD. Blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) has made noninvasive investigations of renal oxygenation in humans possible. Whether diabetes per se contributes to measurable changes in renal oxygenation by BOLD-MRI remains to be elucidated. We investigated whether renal oxygenation measured with BOLD-MRI differs between people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with normal to moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD) (Stages 1-3A) and matched controls. The repeatability of the BOLD-MRI method was also assessed.

METHODS: In this matched cross-sectional study, 20 people with T2DM (age 69.2 ± 4.7 years, duration of diabetes 10.5 ± 6.7 years, male 55.6%) and 20 matched nondiabetic controls (mean age 68.8 ± 5.4 years, male 55.%) underwent BOLD-MRI analysed with the 12-layer concentric object method (TLCO). To investigate the repeatability, seven in the T2DM group and nine in the control group were scanned twice.

RESULTS: A significant reduction in renal oxygenation from the cortex to medulla was found in both groups (P < .01) but no intergroup difference was detected [0.71/s (95% confidence interval -0.28-1.7), P = .16]. The median intraindividual coefficient of variation (CV) varied from 1.2% to 7.0%.

CONCLUSION: T2DM patients with normal to moderate CKD do not seem to have lower renal oxygenation when measured with BOLD-MRI and TLCO. BOLD-MRI has a low intraindividual CV and seems like a reliable method for investigation of renal oxygenation in T2DM.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
Pages (from-to)691–699
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
  • Humans
  • Kidney
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Oxygen
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic


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