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European society of endocrinology clinical practice guidelines on the management of adrenocortical carcinoma in adults, in collaboration with the European Network for the study of adrenal tumors

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  • Martin Fassnacht, University Hospital Würzburg, Julius-Maximilians-Universitat Wurzburg
  • ,
  • Olaf M. Dekkers
  • Tobias Else, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
  • ,
  • Eric Baudin, Institut Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Sud 11
  • ,
  • Alfredo Berruti, University of Brescia
  • ,
  • Ronald R. De Krijger, Erasmus University Medical Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Afdeling Kindergeneeskunde, Princess Maxima Center for Pediatric Oncology
  • ,
  • Harm R. Haak, Máxima Medical Center, Maastricht University
  • ,
  • Radu Mihai, The National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care West (NIHR CLAHRC West) at University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust
  • ,
  • Guillaume Assie, University Hospital Cochin, Université Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité
  • ,
  • Massimo Terzolo, Università degli Studi di Torino

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and in most cases steroid hormone-producing tumor with variable prognosis. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide clinicians with best possible evidence-based recommendations for clinical management of patients with ACC based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. We predefined four main clinical questions, which we judged as particularly important for the management of ACC patients and performed systematic literature searches: (A) What is needed to diagnose an ACC by histopathology? (B) Which are the best prognostic markers in ACC? (C) Is adjuvant therapy able to prevent recurrent disease or reduce mortality after radical resection? (D) What is the best treatment option for macroscopically incompletely resected, recurrent or metastatic disease? Other relevant questions were discussed within the group. Selected Recommendations: (i) We recommend that all patients with suspected and proven ACC are discussed in a multidisciplinary expert team meeting. (ii) We recommend that every patient with (suspected) ACC should undergo careful clinical assessment, detailed endocrine work-up to identify autonomous hormone excess and adrenal-focused imaging. (iii) We recommend that adrenal surgery for (suspected) ACC should be performed only by surgeons experienced in adrenal and oncological surgery aiming at a complete en bloc resection (including resection of oligometastatic disease). (iv) We suggest that all suspected ACC should be reviewed by an expert adrenal pathologist using the Weiss score and providing Ki67 index. (v) We suggest adjuvant mitotane treatment in patients after radical surgery that have a perceived high risk of recurrence (ENSAT stage III, or R1 resection, or Ki67 >10%). (vi) For advanced ACC not amenable to complete surgical resection, local therapeutic measures (e.g. radiation therapy, radiofrequency ablation, chemoembolization) are of particular value. However, we suggest against the routine use of adrenal surgery in case of widespread metastatic disease. In these patients, we recommend either mitotane monotherapy or mitotane, etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin depending on prognostic parameters. In selected patients with a good response, surgery may be subsequently considered. (vii) In patients with recurrent disease and a disease-free interval of at least 12 months, in whom a complete resection/ablation seems feasible, we recommend surgery or alternatively other local therapies. Furthermore, we offer detailed recommendations about the management of mitotane treatment and other supportive therapies. Finally, we suggest directions for future research.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Endocrinology
Volume179
Issue4
Pages (from-to)G1-G46
Number of pages46
ISSN0804-4643
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2018

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