Chronic hypoparathyroidism is characterized by low serum calcium, increased serum phosphorus, and inappropriately low or decreased serum parathyroid hormone. This rare disorder is associated with a variety of complications. The prevalence, incidence, mortality, financial burden, and epidemiology of complications of this disorder are not well understood. This narrative review summarizes current information on the epidemiology and complications of chronic hypoparathyroidism. The reported prevalence of chronic hypoparathyroidism ranges from 6.4–37/100,000, and the incidence is reported to be 0.8–2.3/100,000/year. Mortality is not increased in studies from Denmark or South Korea but was increased in studies from Scotland and Sweden. The financial burden of this disorder is substantial because of increased health care resource utilization in two studies but not well quantitated. Recognized complications include hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, kidney stones, and chronic kidney disease; low bone turnover and possibly upper extremity fractures; cardiac and vascular calcifications; basal ganglia calcifications, cataracts, infections, neuropsychiatric complications, and difficulties with pregnancy. This review concludes that chronic hypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder associated with significant morbidity that may not increase overall mortality but is associated with a substantial financial burden.
- FINANCIAL BURDEN