Energy Trade-off and 4 Extreme Human Body Types

Ze'ev Hochberg, Kerstin Albertsson-Wikland, Florian Privé, Alina German, Anton Holmgren, Lisa Rubin, Michael Shmoish

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review


BACKGROUND: Resource trade-off theory suggests that increased performance on a given trait comes at the cost of decreased performance on other traits.

METHODS: Growth data from 1889 subjects (996 girls) were used from the GrowUp1974 Gothenburg study. Energy Trade-Off (ETO) between height and weight for individuals with extreme body types was characterized using a novel ETO-Score (ETOS). Four extreme body types were defined based on height and ETOI at early adulthood: tall-slender, short-stout, short-slender, and tall-stout; their growth trajectories assessed from ages 0.5-17.5 years.A GWAS using UK BioBank data was conducted to identify gene variants associated with height, BMI, and for the first time with ETOS.

RESULTS: Height and ETOS trajectories show a two-hit pattern with profound changes during early infancy and at puberty for tall-slender and short-stout body types.Several loci (including FTO, ADCY3, GDF5, ) and pathways were identified by GWAS as being highly associated with ETOS. The most strongly associated pathways were related to 'extracellular matrix', 'signal transduction', 'chromatin organization', and 'energy metabolism'.

CONCLUSIONS: ETOS represents a novel anthropometric trait with utility in describing body types. We discovered the multiple genomic loci and pathways probably involved in energy trade-off.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Pages (from-to)E89-E97
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2023


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics
  • Anthropometry
  • Body Height/genetics
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Energy Metabolism/genetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Phenotype
  • Puberty
  • Somatotypes
  • energetic trade-off
  • extreme body types
  • growth trajectories
  • UK Biobank
  • energy metabolism


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