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Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor dust: A review of temporal and spatial trends, and human exposure

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Several chemicals with widespread consumer uses have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), with a potential risk to humans. The occurrence in indoor dust and resulting human exposure have been reviewed for six groups of known and suspected EDCs, including phthalates and non-phthalate plasticizers, flame retardants, bisphenols, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), biocides and personal care product additives (PCPs). Some banned or restricted EDCs, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), bisphenol A (BPA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are still widely detected in indoor dust in most countries, even as the predominating compounds of their group, but generally with decreasing trends. Meanwhile, alternatives that are also potential EDCs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), and PFAS precursors, such as fluorotelomer alcohols, have been detected in indoor dust with increasing frequencies and concentrations. Associations between some known and suspected EDCs, such as phthalate and non-phthalate plasticizers, FRs and BPs, in indoor dust and paired human samples indicate indoor dust as an important human exposure pathway. Although the estimated daily intake (EDI) of most of the investigated compounds was mostly below reference values, the co-exposure to a multitude of known or suspected EDCs requires a better understanding of mixture effects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number162374
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - May 2023

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Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors

    Research areas

  • Biocides, Bisphenols, Flame retardants, Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, Personal care products, Phthalates

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