Efficient multiparty protocols via log-depth threshold formulae

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review

  • Gil Cohen, Weizmann Institute
  • ,
  • Ivan Bjerre Damgård
  • Yuval Ishai, Technion, Israel
  • Jonas Kölker
  • ,
  • P.B. Miltersen
  • Ran Raz, Weizmann Institute
  • ,
  • R.D. Rothblum, Weizmann Institute
We put forward a new approach for the design of efficient multiparty protocols:
Design a protocol π for a small number of parties (say, 3 or 4) which achieves security against a single corrupted party. Such protocols are typically easy to construct, as they may employ techniques that do not scale well with the number of corrupted parties.

Recursively compose π with itself to obtain an efficient n-party protocol which achieves security against a constant fraction of corrupted parties.

The second step of our approach combines the “player emulation” technique of Hirt and Maurer (J. Cryptology, 2000) with constructions of logarithmic-depth formulae which compute threshold functions using only constant fan-in threshold gates.

Using this approach, we simplify and improve on previous results in cryptography and distributed computing. In particular:

We provide conceptually simple constructions of efficient protocols for Secure Multiparty Computation (MPC) in the presence of an honest majority, as well as broadcast protocols from point-to-point channels and a 2-cast primitive.

We obtain new results on MPC over blackbox groups and other algebraic structures.

The above results rely on the following complexity-theoretic contributions, which may be of independent interest:

We show that for every j,k ∈ ℕ such that m≜k−1j−1 is an integer, there is an explicit (poly(n)-time) construction of a logarithmic-depth formula which computes a good approximation of an (n/m)-out-of-n threshold function using only j-out-of-k threshold gates and no constants.

For the special case of n-bit majority from 3-bit majority gates, a non-explicit construction follows from the work of Valiant (J. Algorithms, 1984). For this special case, we provide an explicit construction with a better approximation than for the general threshold case, and also an exact explicit construction based on standard complexity-theoretic or cryptographic assumptions.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2013 : 33rd Annual Conference. Proceedings, Part II
EditorsRan Canetti, Juan A. Garay
Number of pages18
PublisherSpringer VS
Publication year1 Jan 2013
Pages185-202
ISBN (print)978-3-642-40083-4
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-642-40084-1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2013
EventAdvances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2013: 33rd Annual Cryptology Conference - Santa Barbara, CA, United States
Duration: 18 Aug 201322 Aug 2013
Conference number: 33

Conference

ConferenceAdvances in Cryptology – CRYPTO 2013
Nummer33
LandUnited States
BySanta Barbara, CA
Periode18/08/201322/08/2013
SeriesLecture Notes in Computer Science
Volume8043
ISSN0302-9743

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