Dynamic Hemostasis and Fibrinolysis Assays in Intensive Care COVID-19 Patients and Association with Thrombosis and Bleeding-A Systematic Review and a Cohort Study

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Dynamic Hemostasis and Fibrinolysis Assays in Intensive Care COVID-19 Patients and Association with Thrombosis and Bleeding-A Systematic Review and a Cohort Study. / Hvas, Christine Lodberg; Larsen, Julie Brogaard; Adelborg, Kasper et al.

In: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Vol. 48, No. 1, 02.2022, p. 31-54.

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@article{33004e44a1af4a3689199462f824bad9,
title = "Dynamic Hemostasis and Fibrinolysis Assays in Intensive Care COVID-19 Patients and Association with Thrombosis and Bleeding-A Systematic Review and a Cohort Study",
abstract = "Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the infectious pathology caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, have a high risk of thrombosis, though the precise mechanisms behind this remain unclarified. A systematic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE identified 18 prospective studies applying dynamic coagulation assays in ICU COVID-19 patients. Overall, these studies revealed normal or slightly reduced primary hemostasis, prolonged clot initiation, but increased clot firmness. Thrombin generation assay parameters generally were equivalent to the control groups or within reference range. Fibrinolysis assays showed increased clot resistance. Only six studies related their findings to clinical outcome. We also prospectively included 51 COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Blood samples were examined on day 1, 3-4, and 7-8 with platelet function tests, rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), in vivo and ex vivo thrombin generation, and clot lysis assay. Data on thrombosis, bleeding, and mortality were recorded during 30 days. Primary hemostasis was comparable to healthy controls, but COVID-19 patients had longer ROTEM-clotting times and higher maximum clot firmness than healthy controls. Ex vivo thrombin generation was similar to that of healthy controls while in vivo thrombin generation markers, thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex, and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) were higher in ICU COVID-19 patients than in healthy controls. Impaired fibrinolysis was present at all time points. TAT complex and F1 + 2 levels were significantly higher in patients developing thrombosis (n = 16) than in those without. In conclusion, only few previous studies employed dynamic hemostasis assays in COVID-19 ICU-patients and failed to reveal a clear association with development of thrombosis. In ICU COVID-19 patients, we confirmed normal platelet aggregation, while in vivo thrombin generation was increased and fibrinolysis decreased. Thrombosis may be driven by increased thrombin formation in vivo.",
keywords = "COAGULATION, COVID-19, PLASMA, PLATELET, PROFILES, RISK, SCORE, blood coagulation, intensive care unit, thrombin generation, thrombosis, Prospective Studies, Thrombelastography, Humans, Thrombin, Fibrinolysis, Thrombosis, SARS-CoV-2, Hemostasis, Blood Coagulation Tests, Critical Care, Cohort Studies",
author = "Hvas, {Christine Lodberg} and Larsen, {Julie Brogaard} and Kasper Adelborg and Steffen Christensen and Anne-Mette Hvas",
note = "Thieme. All rights reserved.",
year = "2022",
month = feb,
doi = "10.1055/s-0041-1735454",
language = "English",
volume = "48",
pages = "31--54",
journal = "Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis",
issn = "0094-6176",
publisher = "Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.",
number = "1",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dynamic Hemostasis and Fibrinolysis Assays in Intensive Care COVID-19 Patients and Association with Thrombosis and Bleeding-A Systematic Review and a Cohort Study

AU - Hvas, Christine Lodberg

AU - Larsen, Julie Brogaard

AU - Adelborg, Kasper

AU - Christensen, Steffen

AU - Hvas, Anne-Mette

N1 - Thieme. All rights reserved.

PY - 2022/2

Y1 - 2022/2

N2 - Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the infectious pathology caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, have a high risk of thrombosis, though the precise mechanisms behind this remain unclarified. A systematic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE identified 18 prospective studies applying dynamic coagulation assays in ICU COVID-19 patients. Overall, these studies revealed normal or slightly reduced primary hemostasis, prolonged clot initiation, but increased clot firmness. Thrombin generation assay parameters generally were equivalent to the control groups or within reference range. Fibrinolysis assays showed increased clot resistance. Only six studies related their findings to clinical outcome. We also prospectively included 51 COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Blood samples were examined on day 1, 3-4, and 7-8 with platelet function tests, rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), in vivo and ex vivo thrombin generation, and clot lysis assay. Data on thrombosis, bleeding, and mortality were recorded during 30 days. Primary hemostasis was comparable to healthy controls, but COVID-19 patients had longer ROTEM-clotting times and higher maximum clot firmness than healthy controls. Ex vivo thrombin generation was similar to that of healthy controls while in vivo thrombin generation markers, thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex, and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) were higher in ICU COVID-19 patients than in healthy controls. Impaired fibrinolysis was present at all time points. TAT complex and F1 + 2 levels were significantly higher in patients developing thrombosis (n = 16) than in those without. In conclusion, only few previous studies employed dynamic hemostasis assays in COVID-19 ICU-patients and failed to reveal a clear association with development of thrombosis. In ICU COVID-19 patients, we confirmed normal platelet aggregation, while in vivo thrombin generation was increased and fibrinolysis decreased. Thrombosis may be driven by increased thrombin formation in vivo.

AB - Patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the infectious pathology caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, have a high risk of thrombosis, though the precise mechanisms behind this remain unclarified. A systematic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE identified 18 prospective studies applying dynamic coagulation assays in ICU COVID-19 patients. Overall, these studies revealed normal or slightly reduced primary hemostasis, prolonged clot initiation, but increased clot firmness. Thrombin generation assay parameters generally were equivalent to the control groups or within reference range. Fibrinolysis assays showed increased clot resistance. Only six studies related their findings to clinical outcome. We also prospectively included 51 COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Blood samples were examined on day 1, 3-4, and 7-8 with platelet function tests, rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), in vivo and ex vivo thrombin generation, and clot lysis assay. Data on thrombosis, bleeding, and mortality were recorded during 30 days. Primary hemostasis was comparable to healthy controls, but COVID-19 patients had longer ROTEM-clotting times and higher maximum clot firmness than healthy controls. Ex vivo thrombin generation was similar to that of healthy controls while in vivo thrombin generation markers, thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex, and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) were higher in ICU COVID-19 patients than in healthy controls. Impaired fibrinolysis was present at all time points. TAT complex and F1 + 2 levels were significantly higher in patients developing thrombosis (n = 16) than in those without. In conclusion, only few previous studies employed dynamic hemostasis assays in COVID-19 ICU-patients and failed to reveal a clear association with development of thrombosis. In ICU COVID-19 patients, we confirmed normal platelet aggregation, while in vivo thrombin generation was increased and fibrinolysis decreased. Thrombosis may be driven by increased thrombin formation in vivo.

KW - COAGULATION

KW - COVID-19

KW - PLASMA

KW - PLATELET

KW - PROFILES

KW - RISK

KW - SCORE

KW - blood coagulation

KW - intensive care unit

KW - thrombin generation

KW - thrombosis

KW - Prospective Studies

KW - Thrombelastography

KW - Humans

KW - Thrombin

KW - Fibrinolysis

KW - Thrombosis

KW - SARS-CoV-2

KW - Hemostasis

KW - Blood Coagulation Tests

KW - Critical Care

KW - Cohort Studies

U2 - 10.1055/s-0041-1735454

DO - 10.1055/s-0041-1735454

M3 - Review

C2 - 34715692

VL - 48

SP - 31

EP - 54

JO - Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis

JF - Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis

SN - 0094-6176

IS - 1

ER -