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Double diffusion encoding and applications for biomedical imaging

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  • Rafael N Henriques, Champalimaud Neuroscience Programme, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon, Portugal.
  • ,
  • Marco Palombo, University College London, London
  • ,
  • Sune N Jespersen
  • Noam Shemesh, Champalimaud Neuroscience Programme, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon, Portugal.
  • ,
  • Henrik Lundell, Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark
  • ,
  • Andrada Ianuş, Champalimaud Neuroscience Programme, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon, Portugal.

Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is one of the most important contemporary non-invasive modalities for probing tissue structure at the microscopic scale. The majority of dMRI techniques employ standard single diffusion encoding (SDE) measurements, covering different sequence parameter ranges depending on the complexity of the method. Although many signal representations and biophysical models have been proposed for SDE data, they are intrinsically limited by a lack of specificity. Advanced dMRI methods have been proposed to provide additional microstructural information beyond what can be inferred from SDE. These enhanced contrasts can play important roles in characterizing biological tissues, for instance upon diseases (e.g. neurodegenerative, cancer, stroke), aging, learning, and development. In this review we focus on double diffusion encoding (DDE), which stands out among other advanced acquisitions for its versatility, ability to probe more specific diffusion correlations, and feasibility for preclinical and clinical applications. Various DDE methodologies have been employed to probe compartment sizes (Section 3), decouple the effects of microscopic diffusion anisotropy from orientation dispersion (Section 4), probe displacement correlations, study exchange, or suppress fast diffusing compartments (Section 6). DDE measurements can also be used to improve the robustness of biophysical models (Section 5) and study intra-cellular diffusion via magnetic resonance spectroscopy of metabolites (Section 7). This review discusses all these topics as well as important practical aspects related to the implementation and contrast in preclinical and clinical settings (Section 9) and aims to provide the readers a guide for deciding on the right DDE acquisition for their specific application.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108989
JournalJournal of Neuroscience Methods
Volume348
Number of pages28
ISSN0165-0270
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Research areas

  • Diffusion MRI, diffusion correlation tensor, double diffusion encoding, exchange, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, microscopic anisotropy, tissue microstructure

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