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Development of the Prevent for Work questionnaire (P4Wq) for assessment of musculoskeletal risk in the workplace: part 1-literature review and domains selection

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  • Francesco Langella, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi - Milano
  • ,
  • Steffan Wittrup McPhee Christensen, Aalborg University, University College of Northern Denmark
  • ,
  • Thorvaldur Skuli Palsson, Aalborg University
  • ,
  • Morten Høgh, Aalborg University
  • ,
  • Nicolo Gagni, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi - Milano
  • ,
  • Pablo Bellosta-López, San Jorge University
  • ,
  • David Høyrup Christiansen
  • Mauro Delle Chiaie, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi - Milano
  • ,
  • Victor Domenéch-García, Department of Physiotherapy, Holstebro Regional Hospital
  • ,
  • Venerina Johnston, San Jorge University
  • ,
  • Grace P Y Szeto, Tung Wah College
  • ,
  • Jorge Hugo Villafañe, IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi - Milano
  • ,
  • Pablo Herrero, Service of Digestive Diseases. University Hospital. University of Zaragoza. CIBERehd. IIS Aragón. Zaragoza, Spain.
  • ,
  • Pedro Berjano, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Galeazzi - Milano

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to define appropriate domains and items for the development of a self-administered questionnaire to assess the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) and the risk of its progression to chronicity.

DESIGN: Literature review and survey study.

SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A literature review and a two-round interview with 15 experts in musculoskeletal pain were performed to identify the available domains for WMSD assessment.

INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOME: To ensure quality, only validated questionnaires were included for the Delphi process. A three-round Delphi method, with three round steps, was used to select the most pertinent and relevant domains and items.

RESULTS: Nine questionnaires were identified through the expert discussion and literature review, comprising 38 candidate domains and 504 items. In the first round of the Delphi group, 17 domains reached more than 70% agreement and were selected. In the second round, 10 domains were rejected, while 11 were selected to complete the pool of domains. In the third and final round, 89 items belonging to 28 domains were defined as significant to develop a WMSDs risk assessment questionnaire.

CONCLUSIONS: No specific risk assessment questionnaires for WMSDs were identified from the literature. WMSD risk of presence and chronicity can be defined by an assessment tool based on the biopsychosocial model and the fear-avoidance components of chronic pain. The present study provides the formulation and operationalisation of the constructs in domains and items needed for developing and validating the questionnaire.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBMJ Open
Pages (from-to)e043800
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021

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