Development and validation of the Danish Big Five Inventory-2: Domain- and facet-level structure, construct validity, and reliability

Anna Vedel*, Kaare Bro Wellnitz, Steven Ludeke, Christopher J. Soto, Oliver P. John, Simon Calmar Andersen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Following the publication of the Big Five Inventory-2 (BFI-2) and its abbreviated forms (the 30-item BFI-2-S and 15-item BFI-2-XS), two studies were conducted to develop and validate a Danish translation of these measures. Study 1 first developed a preliminary Danish BFI-2 item pool consisting of translations of the 60 BFI-2 items, then tested and refined this item pool using two waves of data collection, and identified a set of 60 item formulations for the Danish BFI-2. Study 1 then examined the domain- and facet-level structure of the Danish BFI-2, and the construct validity and reliability of this measure. Study 2 tested the generalizability of the measurement properties of the Danish BFI-2 found in Study 1 as well as the preliminary measurement properties of its abbreviated forms (the Danish BFI-2-S and BFI-2-XS) in a new sample. The results of these studies indicate that the Danish BFI-2 is a reliable and valid personality measure with psychometric properties and construct validity corresponding to the English-language original. The preliminary results regarding measurement properties of the abbreviated forms are encouraging and should inspire further validation.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Journal of Psychological Assessment
Pages (from-to)42-51
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • Big Five
  • Facets
  • Five-Factor Model
  • Personality measurement
  • Test translation

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