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Cross-validation of the entomophagy attitude questionnaire (EAQ): A study in China on eaters and non-eaters

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  • Fabio Verneau, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
  • Yanfeng Zhou, Sun Yat-Sen University, China
  • Mario Amato, University of Napoli Federico II, University of Naples Federico II
  • ,
  • Klaus G Grunert
  • Francesco La Barbera, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Research interest in direct entomophagy (the eating of insects) and indirect entomophagy (the eating of insects-fed animals) has grown exponentially in recent years. The use of insects as food and feed is a potential avenue to meet the growing global food demand, and for enhancing the sustainability of animal diets as well. The Entomophagy Attitude Questionnaire (EAQ) has been recently proposed as a specific measure of attitudes towards direct and indirect entomophagy. First aim of the current study was to cross-validate the EAQ in a non-Western country. An additional aim was to explore the differences between who have previously eaten insects and who have not. Hence, the EAQ was administered to a convenience Chinese sample (N = 395), together with measures of intention to eat insects either directly or indirectly. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed a satisfactory fit of the EAQ three-factor model. The instrument showed adequate psychometric properties, and evidences of convergent and divergent validity of EAQ’s latent constructs were found. In addition, EAQ was found to predict effectively participants’ intention to engage both in direct and indirect entomophagy. Results thus support the validity of EAQ and the conceptualization underpinning it in a non-Western country. The main difference emerged between eaters and non-eaters regards the role of disgust, which is more predictive of intention for non-eaters, whereas positive attitude (interest) is more predictive for eaters. Hence, different communication strategies are suggested for individuals who already have vs. have not experienced the direct or indirect eating of insects.
Original languageEnglish
Article number104029
JournalFood Quality and Preference
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

    Research areas

  • CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE, Confirmatory factor analysis, DETERMINANTS, DISGUST, Direct entomophagy, EDIBLE INSECTS, FEED, FOOD, IMPLICIT ASSOCIATIONS, Indirect entomophagy, Insects, Multigroup SEM, WILLINGNESS

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