Cortical somatosensory evoked potential amplitudes and clinical outcome after cardiac arrest: a retrospective multicenter study

Noelle Aalberts, Erik Westhall, Birger Johnsen, Katrin Hahn, Martin Kenda, Tobias Cronberg, Hans Friberg, Sandra Preuß, Christoph J. Ploner, Christian Storm, Jens Nee, Christoph Leithner, Christian Endisch*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Objective: Bilaterally absent cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) reliably predict poor outcome in comatose cardiac arrest (CA) patients. Cortical SSEP amplitudes are a recent prognostic extension; however, amplitude thresholds, inter-recording, and inter-rater agreement remain uncertain. Methods: In a retrospective multicenter cohort study, we determined cortical SSEP amplitudes of comatose CA patients using a standardized evaluation pathway. We studied inter-recording agreement in repeated SSEPs and inter-rater agreement by four raters independently determining 100 cortical SSEP amplitudes. Primary outcome was assessed using the cerebral performance category (CPC) upon intensive care unit discharge dichotomized into good (CPC 1–3) and poor outcome (CPC 4–5). Results: Of 706 patients with SSEPs with median 3 days after CA, 277 (39.2%) had good and 429 (60.8%) poor outcome. Of patients with bilaterally absent cortical SSEPs, one (0.8%) survived with CPC 3 and 130 (99.2%) had poor outcome. Otherwise, the lowest cortical SSEP amplitude in good outcome patients was 0.5 µV. 184 (42.9%) of 429 poor outcome patients had lower cortical SSEP amplitudes. In 106 repeated SSEPs, there were 6 (5.7%) with prognostication-relevant changes in SSEP categories. Following a standardized evaluation pathway, inter-rater agreement was almost perfect with a Fleiss’ kappa of 0.88. Interpretation: Bilaterally absent and cortical SSEP amplitudes below 0.5 µV predicted poor outcome with high specificity. A standardized evaluation pathway provided high inter-rater and inter-recording agreement. Regain of consciousness in patients with bilaterally absent cortical SSEPs rarely occurs. High-amplitude cortical SSEP amplitudes likely indicate the absence of severe brain injury.

Original languageEnglish
Book seriesJournal of Neurology
Volume270
Issue12
Pages (from-to)5999-6009
Number of pages11
ISSN0340-5354
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Keywords

  • Cardiac arrest
  • Coma
  • Hypoxic encephalopathy
  • Prognosis
  • Somatosensory evoked potentials

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