Contemporary NMR Studies of Protein Electrostatics

Mathias A S Hass, Frans A A Mulder

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Electrostatics play an important role in many aspects of protein chemistry. However, the accurate determination of side chain proton affinity in proteins by experiment and theory remains challenging. In recent years the field of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has advanced the way that protonation states are measured, allowing researchers to examine electrostatic interactions at an unprecedented level of detail and accuracy. Experiments are now in place that follow pH-dependent (13)C and (15)N chemical shifts as spatially close as possible to the sites of protonation, allowing all titratable amino acid side chains to be probed sequence specifically. The strong and telling response of carefully selected reporter nuclei allows individual titration events to be monitored. At the same time, improved frameworks allow researchers to model multiple coupled protonation equilibria and to identify the underlying pH-dependent contributions to the chemical shifts.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAnnual Review of Biophysics
Pages (from-to)53-75
Number of pages23
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jun 2015


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