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Conservation of A-to-I RNA editing in bowhead whale and pig

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  • Knud Larsen
  • Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources

RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process in which nucleotide changes are introduced into an RNA sequence, many of which can contribute to proteomic sequence variation. The most common type of RNA editing, contributing to nearly 99% of all editing events in RNA, is A-to-I (adenosine-to-inosine) editing mediated by double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR) enzymes. A-to-I editing at 'recoding' sites results in non-synonymous substitutions in protein-coding sequences. Here, we present studies of the conservation of A-to-I editing in selected mRNAs between pigs, bowhead whales, humans and two shark species. All examined mRNAs-NEIL1, COG3, GRIA2, FLNA, FLNB, IGFBP7, AZIN1, BLCAP, GLI1, SON, HTR2C and ADAR2 -showed conservation of A-to-I editing of recoding sites. In addition, novel editing sites were identified in NEIL1 and GLI1 in bowhead whales. The A-to-I editing site of human NEIL1 in position 242 was conserved in the bowhead and porcine homologues. A novel editing site was discovered in Tyr244. Differential editing was detected at the two adenosines in the NEIL1 242 codon in both pig and bowhead NEIL1 mRNAs in various tissues and organs. No conservation of editing of KCNB1 and EEF1A mRNAs was seen in bowhead whales. In silico analyses revealed conservation of five adenosines in ADAR2, some of which are subject to A-to-I editing in bowheads and pigs, and conservation of a regulatory sequence in GRIA2 mRNA that is responsible for recognition of the ADAR editing enzyme.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0260081
Number of pages30
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

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© 2021 Larsen, Heide-Jørgensen. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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