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**Clusters in separated tubes of tilted dipoles.** / Armstrong, Jeremy R.; Jensen, Aksel S.; Volosniev, Artem G.; Zinner, Nikolaj T.

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaper › Journal article › Research › peer-review

Armstrong, JR, Jensen, AS, Volosniev, AG & Zinner, NT 2020, 'Clusters in separated tubes of tilted dipoles', *Mathematics*, vol. 8, no. 4, 484. https://doi.org/10.3390/math8040484

Armstrong, J. R., Jensen, A. S., Volosniev, A. G., & Zinner, N. T. (2020). Clusters in separated tubes of tilted dipoles. *Mathematics*, *8*(4), [484]. https://doi.org/10.3390/math8040484

Armstrong JR, Jensen AS, Volosniev AG, Zinner NT. 2020. Clusters in separated tubes of tilted dipoles. Mathematics. 8(4):Article 484. https://doi.org/10.3390/math8040484

Armstrong, Jeremy R. et al. "Clusters in separated tubes of tilted dipoles". *Mathematics*. 2020. 8(4). https://doi.org/10.3390/math8040484

Armstrong JR, Jensen AS, Volosniev AG, Zinner NT. Clusters in separated tubes of tilted dipoles. Mathematics. 2020 Apr 1;8(4). 484. https://doi.org/10.3390/math8040484

Armstrong, Jeremy R. ; Jensen, Aksel S. ; Volosniev, Artem G. ; Zinner, Nikolaj T. / **Clusters in separated tubes of tilted dipoles**. In: Mathematics. 2020 ; Vol. 8, No. 4.

@article{98f4246a7bc046c9912b02e0cad3db40,

title = "Clusters in separated tubes of tilted dipoles",

abstract = "A few-body cluster is a building block of a many-body system in a gas phase provided the temperature at most is of the order of the binding energy of this cluster. Here we illustrate this statement by considering a system of tubes filled with dipolar distinguishable particles. We calculate the partition function, which determines the probability to find a few-body cluster at a given temperature. The input for our calculations-the energies of few-body clusters-is estimated using the harmonic approximation. We first describe and demonstrate the validity of our numerical procedure. Then we discuss the results featuring melting of the zero-temperature many-body state into a gas of free particles and few-body clusters. For temperature higher than its binding energy threshold, the dimers overwhelmingly dominate the ensemble, where the remaining probability is in free particles. At very high temperatures free (harmonic oscillator trap-bound) particle dominance is eventually reached. This structure evolution appears both for one and two particles in each layer providing crucial information about the behavior of ultracold dipolar gases. The investigation addresses the transition region between few-and many-body physics as a function of temperature using a system of ten dipoles in five tubes.",

keywords = "Cold dipolar molecules, Few-body to many-body crossover, Harmonic approximation",

author = "Armstrong, {Jeremy R.} and Jensen, {Aksel S.} and Volosniev, {Artem G.} and Zinner, {Nikolaj T.}",

year = "2020",

month = apr,

day = "1",

doi = "10.3390/math8040484",

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volume = "8",

journal = "Mathematika",

issn = "0025-5793",

publisher = "London Mathematical Society",

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T1 - Clusters in separated tubes of tilted dipoles

AU - Armstrong, Jeremy R.

AU - Jensen, Aksel S.

AU - Volosniev, Artem G.

AU - Zinner, Nikolaj T.

PY - 2020/4/1

Y1 - 2020/4/1

N2 - A few-body cluster is a building block of a many-body system in a gas phase provided the temperature at most is of the order of the binding energy of this cluster. Here we illustrate this statement by considering a system of tubes filled with dipolar distinguishable particles. We calculate the partition function, which determines the probability to find a few-body cluster at a given temperature. The input for our calculations-the energies of few-body clusters-is estimated using the harmonic approximation. We first describe and demonstrate the validity of our numerical procedure. Then we discuss the results featuring melting of the zero-temperature many-body state into a gas of free particles and few-body clusters. For temperature higher than its binding energy threshold, the dimers overwhelmingly dominate the ensemble, where the remaining probability is in free particles. At very high temperatures free (harmonic oscillator trap-bound) particle dominance is eventually reached. This structure evolution appears both for one and two particles in each layer providing crucial information about the behavior of ultracold dipolar gases. The investigation addresses the transition region between few-and many-body physics as a function of temperature using a system of ten dipoles in five tubes.

AB - A few-body cluster is a building block of a many-body system in a gas phase provided the temperature at most is of the order of the binding energy of this cluster. Here we illustrate this statement by considering a system of tubes filled with dipolar distinguishable particles. We calculate the partition function, which determines the probability to find a few-body cluster at a given temperature. The input for our calculations-the energies of few-body clusters-is estimated using the harmonic approximation. We first describe and demonstrate the validity of our numerical procedure. Then we discuss the results featuring melting of the zero-temperature many-body state into a gas of free particles and few-body clusters. For temperature higher than its binding energy threshold, the dimers overwhelmingly dominate the ensemble, where the remaining probability is in free particles. At very high temperatures free (harmonic oscillator trap-bound) particle dominance is eventually reached. This structure evolution appears both for one and two particles in each layer providing crucial information about the behavior of ultracold dipolar gases. The investigation addresses the transition region between few-and many-body physics as a function of temperature using a system of ten dipoles in five tubes.

KW - Cold dipolar molecules

KW - Few-body to many-body crossover

KW - Harmonic approximation

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