Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is a rare malformation syndrome characterized by distinctive facial, ectodermal, and skeletal features. TRPS is divided into TRPS type I/III caused by pathogenic variants in TRPS1 and TRPS type II caused by contiguous gene deletions also spanning EXT1 and RAD21. Due to its rarity, knowledge of the clinical course of TRPS remains limited. Therefore, we collected and characterized a case series of 15 TRPS type I patients (median age at diagnosis 15 [interquartile range: 10-18] years, 11 females [73%]) seen at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, with a median follow-up period of 10 years. We estimated a minimum point prevalence of 0.5 in 100,000 (95% CI: 0.3-0.8 per 100,000) persons. Common craniofacial features included fine and sparse hair with a high anterior hairline, eyebrows with lateral thinning and a thicker medial part, prominent ears, a bulbous nose tip with small nasal alae, a low-hanging, and often wide columella, and a long philtrum with a thin upper vermillion. Specific skeletal features included short stature and deviating and short fingers with cone-shaped epiphyses and shortened metacarpals on radiographs. The most significant morbidity of the cohort was joint complaints, which were reported by all patients, often already before the TRPS diagnosis was established. We identified ten different TRPS1 variants including both frameshift/nonsense, missense, and splice-site variants, including seven variants not previously reported in the literature. In accordance with previous literature, no genotype-phenotype correlation was identified. The clinical trajectories were heterogeneous involving pediatrics, dermatology, orthopedic surgery, clinical genetics, and/or odontology, emphasizing that close multidisciplinary collaboration is essential for early diagnosis of TRPS and to ensure proper and timely patient care and counseling.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104937
JournalEuropean Journal of Medical Genetics
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • Ectodermal dysplasia
  • Genotype
  • Phenotype
  • Prognosis
  • TRPS1
  • Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome


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