Clinical and Metabolic Characterization of Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Within the First Year Postpartum

Laura Løftgaard Knudsen, Sine Knorr, Susanne Kastberg Prange, Charlotte Wolff, Helle Nørgaard, Anne Mette Torp, Lene Ring Madsen, Lene Mortensen, Henrik Holm Thomsen, Lars Peter Sørensen, Per Glud Ovesen, Jens Fuglsang, Ulla Kampmann*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review


CONTEXT: Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of long-term complications, including impaired glucose metabolism, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular disease, and obesity. In current clinical practice, a 1 size fits all approach to GDM is applied, although heterogeneity among women with GDM has been recognized.

OBJECTIVE: To give the most adequate preventive care and postpartum (PP) guidance, we aimed to make a metabolic characterization and identify subgroups of women with previous GDM within the first year PP.

METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we collected data in gestational week 34-38, at 3 months, and 1 year PP on women with GDM who participated in a PP follow-up program in Central Region Denmark from April 2019 to December 2022.

RESULTS: In total, 1270 women were included in the program in late pregnancy. Of the 768 women participating in either the oral glucose tolerance test 3 months PP (n = 545) or the 1-year follow-up (n = 493) or both (n = 261), 608 (79.2%) were normoglycemic, 137 (17.8%) had prediabetes, 20 (2.6%) had T2DM, and 3 (.4%) had developed T1DM. More than 40% of the women gained weight in the first year PP compared with their pregestational weight.

CONCLUSION: Our study shows that 20.8% of women with GDM who volunteered to participate in a clinical follow-up program developed prediabetes or diabetes (T1DM and T2DM) within the first year PP. The GDM diagnosis encompasses a heterogenetic group of women and a deeper characterization may provide an opportunity for a more personalized risk assessment to prevent the progression to T2DM.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberbvae044
JournalJournal of the Endocrine Society
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


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