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Climate and socio-economic factors explain differences between observed and expected naturalization patterns of European plants around the world

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DOI

  • Robin Pouteau, TaiZhou University, Universite de Montpellier
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  • Wilfried Thuiller, Universite Grenoble Alpes
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  • Carsten Hobohm, University of Flensburg
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  • Caroline Brunel, TaiZhou University
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  • Barry J. Conn, University of Sydney
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  • Wayne Dawson, University of Durham
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  • Michele de Sá Dechoum, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, The Horus Institute for Environmental Conservation and Development
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  • Aleksandr L. Ebel, Tomsk State University, RAS - Siberian Branch
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  • Franz Essl, University of Vienna
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  • Ori Fragman-Sapir, Hebrew University of Jerusalem
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  • Trevor Fristoe, University of Konstanz
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  • Nejc Jogan, University of Ljubljana
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  • Holger Kreft, University of Göttingen
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  • Bernd Lenzner, University of Vienna
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  • Carsten Meyer, German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig University, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
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  • Jan Pergl, Czech Academy of Sciences
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  • Petr Pyšek, Czech Academy of Sciences, Charles University
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  • Alla Verkhozina, RAS - Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Siberian Branch
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  • Patrick Weigelt, University of Göttingen
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  • Qiang Yang, University of Konstanz
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  • Elena Zykova, RAS - Siberian Branch
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  • Svetlana Aćić, University of Belgrade
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  • Emiliano Agrillo, ?Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research
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  • Fabio Attorre, University of Rome La Sapienza
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  • Ariel Bergamini, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
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  • Christian Berg, University of Graz
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  • Erwin Bergmeier, University of Göttingen
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  • Idoia Biurrun, University of the Basque Country
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  • Steffen Boch, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
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  • Gianmaria Bonari, Masaryk University, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano
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  • Zoltán Botta-Dukát, Hungarian Academy of Sciences
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  • Helge Bruelheide, German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
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  • Juan Antonio Campos, University of the Basque Country
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  • Andraž Čarni, University of Nova Gorica
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  • Laura Casella, ?Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research
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  • Maria Laura Carranza, University of Molise
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  • Milan Chytrý, Masaryk University
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  • Renata Ćušterevska, SS Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje
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  • Michele De Sanctis, University of Rome La Sapienza
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  • Jürgen Dengler, German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, University of Bayreuth
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  • Panayotis Dimopoulos, University of Patras
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  • Rasmus Ejrnæs
  • Jörg Ewald, Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences
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  • Giuliano Fanelli, University of Rome La Sapienza
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  • Federico Fernández-González, University of Castilla-La Mancha
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  • Rosario G. Gavilán, Complutense University of Madrid
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  • Jean Claude Gegout, Universite de Lorraine
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  • Rense Haveman, Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations
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  • Maike Isermann, University of Bremen, Lower Saxon Wadden Sea National Park Authority
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  • Ute Jandt, German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
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  • Florian Jansen, University of Rostock
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  • Borja Jiménez-Alfaro, University of Oviedo
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  • Ali Kavgacı, Karabuk University
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  • Larisa Khanina, Russian Academy of Sciences
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  • Ilona Knollová, Masaryk University
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  • Anna Kuzemko, M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany
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  • Maria Lebedeva, Russian Academy of Sciences
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  • Jonathan Lenoir, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne
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  • Tatiana Lysenko, Russian Academy of Sciences
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  • Corrado Marcenò, Masaryk University
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  • Vasiliy Martynenko, Russian Academy of Sciences
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  • Jesper Erenskjold Moeslund
  • Ricarda Pätsch, University of Alberta
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  • Remigiusz Pielech, University of Agriculture in Krakow
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  • Valerijus Rašomavičius, Institute of Botany Lithuanian
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  • Iris de Ronde, Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations
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  • Eszter Ruprecht, Babes-Bolyai University
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  • Solvita Rūsiņa, University of Latvia
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  • Pavel Shirokikh, Russian Academy of Sciences
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  • Jozef Šibík, Slovak Academy of Sciences
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  • Urban Šilc, University of Nova Gorica
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  • Angela Stanisci, University of Molise
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  • Zvjezdana Stančić, Faculty of Geotechnical Engineering, University of Zagreb
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  • Jens Christian Svenning
  • Grzegorz Swacha, University of Wroclaw
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  • Pavel Dan Turtureanu, Babes-Bolyai University
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  • Milan Valachovič, Slovak Academy of Sciences
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  • Kiril Vassilev, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
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  • Sergey Yamalov, Russian Academy of Sciences
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  • Mark van Kleunen, TaiZhou University, University of Konstanz

Aim: The number of naturalized (i.e. established) alien species has increased rapidly over recent centuries. Given the differences in environmental tolerances among species, little is known about what factors determine the extent to which the observed size of the naturalized range of a species and hence the extent to which the observed richness of naturalized species of a region approach their full potential. Here, we asked which region- and species-specific characteristics explain differences between observed and expected naturalizations. Location: Global. Time period: Present. Major taxa studied: Vascular plants. Methods: We determined the observed naturalized distribution outside Europe for 1,485 species endemic to Europe using the Global Naturalized Alien Flora (GloNAF) database and their expected distributions outside Europe using species distribution models. First, we investigated which of seven socio-economic factors related to introduction pathways, anthropogenic pressures and inventory effort best explained the differences between observed and expected naturalized European floras. Second, we examined whether distributional features, economic use and functional traits explain the extent to which species have filled their expected ranges outside Europe. Results: In terms of suitable area, more than 95% of expected naturalizations of European plants were not yet observed. Species were naturalized in only 4.2% of their suitable regions outside of Europe (range filling) and in 0.4% of their unsuitable regions (range expansion). Anthropogenic habitat disturbance primarily explained the difference between observed and expected naturalized European floras, as did the number of treaties relevant to invasive species. Species of ornamental and economic value and with large specific leaf area performed better at filling and expanding beyond their expected range. Main conclusions: The naturalization of alien plant species is explained by climate matching but also by the regional level of human development, the introduction pressure associated with the ornamental and economic values of the species and their adaptation to disturbed environments.

Original languageEnglish
JournalGlobal Ecology and Biogeography
Volume30
Issue7
Pages (from-to)1514-1531
ISSN1466-822X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Copyright:
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

    Research areas

  • alien species, anthropogenic pressure, environmental driver, functional trait, global change, introduction pathway, naturalization, ornamental plant, sampling bias, species distribution model

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