Beyond the 'East-West' Dichotomy: Global Variation in Cultural Models of Selfhood

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DOI

  • Vivian L. Vignoles, Sussex University
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  • Ellinor Owe, Sussex University
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  • Maja Becker, Univ Toulouse, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), PRES Universite de Toulouse, Universite Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, Universite de Toulouse, IRAP, UPS OMP
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  • Peter B. Smith, Sussex University
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  • Matthew J. Easterbrook, Sussex University
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  • Rupert Brown, Sussex University
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  • Roberto Gonzalez, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
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  • Nicolas Didier, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
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  • Diego Carrasco, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
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  • Maria Paz Cadena, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
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  • Siugmin Lay, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
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  • Seth J. Schwartz, Miami University
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  • Sabrina E. Des Rosiers, Barry Univ
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  • Juan A. Villamar, Northwestern University
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  • Alin Gavreliuc, West University of Timisoara
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  • Martina Zinkeng, Univ Buea
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  • Robert Kreuzbauer, Nanyang Technol Univ, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Technological University & National Institute of Education (NIE) Singapore, Sch Biol Sci, Singapore Ctr Environm Life Sci Engn
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  • Peter Baguma, Makerere University
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  • Mariana Martin, University of Namibia
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  • Alexander Tatarko, Natl Res Univ
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  • Ginette Herman, KU Leuven
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  • Isabelle de Sauvage, KU Leuven
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  • Marie Courtois, KU Leuven
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  • Ragna B. Gardarsdottir, University of Iceland, Reykjavik
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  • Charles Harb, American University of Beirut
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  • Inge Schweiger Gallo, Complutense University of Madrid
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  • Paula Prieto Gil, Complutense University of Madrid
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  • Raquel Lorente Clemares, Complutense University of Madrid
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  • Gabriella Campara, Complutense University of Madrid
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  • George Nizharadze, Free Univ Tbilisi
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  • Ma. Elizabeth J. Macapagal, Ateneo Manila University
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  • Baland Jalal, Cambridge University
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  • David Bourguignon, Univ Lorraine, University of Lorraine, UMR 1136
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  • Jianxin Zhang, Chinese Academy of Sciences
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  • Shaobo Lv, North China University of Science & Technology
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  • Aneta Chybicka, University of Gdansk
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  • Masaki Yuki, Hokkaido University
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  • Xiao‒Ke Zhang, Osaka University
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  • Agustin Espinosa, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru
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  • Aune Valk, Tartu University
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  • Sami Abuhamdeh, Istanbul Sehir University
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  • Benjamin Amponsah, University of Ghana
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  • Emre Ozgen, Yasar University
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  • E. Ulku Guner, Bilkent Univ, Ihsan Dogramaci Bilkent University, Dept Phys, Soft Matter Lab
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  • Nil Yamakoglu, Bilkent Univ, Ihsan Dogramaci Bilkent University, Dept Phys, Soft Matter Lab
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  • Phatthanakit Chobthamkit, Thammasat University
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  • Tom Pyszczynski, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs
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  • Pelin Kesebir, Univ Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin Madison, University of Wisconsin System, Dept Phys
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  • Elvia Vargas Trujillo, Universidad de los Andes - Chile
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  • Paola Balanta, Universidad de los Andes - Chile
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  • Boris Cendales Ayala, Universidad de los Andes - Chile
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  • Silvia H. Koller, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
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  • Jas Laile Jaafar, Universiti Malaya
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  • Nicolay Gausel, Agder University
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  • Ronald Fischer, Victoria University Wellington
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  • Taciano L. Milfont, Victoria University Wellington
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  • Ersin Kusdil, Science Faculty, Biology Department, Uludag University
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  • Selinay Caglar, Ankara University School of Medicine
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  • Said Aldhafri, Sultan Qaboos University
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  • Maria Cristina Ferreira, Univ Salgado de Oliveira
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  • Kassahun Habtamu Mekonnen, Dept. Biology, Addis Ababa University
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  • Qian Wang, Chinese University Hong Kong
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  • Marta Fulop, Hungarian Academy of Sciences
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  • Ana Torres, Univ Fed Paraiba, Universidade Federal da Paraiba
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  • Leoncio Camino, Univ Fed Paraiba, Universidade Federal da Paraiba
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  • Flavia Cristina Silveira Lemos, Universidade Federal do Pará
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  • Immo Fritsche, University of Leipzig
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  • Bettina Møller, Friedrich Schiller University Jena
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  • Camillo Regalia, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
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  • Claudia Manzi, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
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  • Maria Brambilla, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
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  • Michael Harris Bond, Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Markus and Kitayama's (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-report measures of independence and interdependence frequently fail to show predicted cultural differences. We revisited the conceptualization and measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals in 2 large-scale multinational surveys, using improved methods for cross-cultural research. We developed (Study 1: N = 2924 students in 16 nations) and validated across cultures (Study 2: N = 7279 adults from 55 cultural groups in 33 nations) a new 7-dimensional model of self-reported ways of being independent or interdependent. Patterns of global variation support some of Markus and Kitayama's predictions, but a simple contrast between independence and interdependence does not adequately capture the diverse models of selfhood that prevail in different world regions. Cultural groups emphasize different ways of being both independent and interdependent, depending on individualism-collectivism, national socioeconomic development, and religious heritage. Our 7-dimensional model will allow future researchers to test more accurately the implications of cultural models of selfhood for psychological processes in diverse ecocultural contexts.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: General
Volume145
Issue8
Pages (from-to)966-1000
Number of pages35
ISSN0096-3445
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

    Research areas

  • culture, independence-interdependence, self-construals, INDIVIDUALISM-COLLECTIVISM, UNITED-STATES, FIT INDEXES, PSYCHOLOGICAL-RESEARCH, MEASUREMENT INVARIANCE, COMPONENT ANALYSIS, IPSATIVE MEASURES, CONSTRUAL SCALES, VALUES, COMMUNICATION

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