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Between- and within-herd variation in blood and milk biomarkers in Holstein cows in early lactation

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  • Mogens Agerbo Krogh
  • M. Hostens, Ghent University, Universiteit Gent
  • ,
  • Mazdak Salavati, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, AL9 7TA, United Kingdom, The Royal Veterinary College, United Kingdom
  • Clement Grelet, Wallon Agricultural Research Centre
  • ,
  • Martin Tang Sørensen
  • D. C. Wathers, Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, AL9 7TA, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
  • C. P. Ferris, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, United Kingdom
  • C Marchitelli, Univesitá della Tuscia, Viterbo, Research Center for Animal Production and Aquaculture (CREA), Italy
  • F. Signorelli, Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l'Analisi dell'Economia Agraria (CREA) - Research Centre for Animal Production and Aquaculture, Monterotondo, Rome, Italy., Italy
  • F. Napolitano, Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l'Analisi dell'Economia Agraria (CREA) - Research Centre for Animal Production and Aquaculture, Monterotondo, Rome, Italy., Italy
  • F Becker, Research Institute for the Biology of Farm Animals, Dummerstoft, Germany
  • Torben Larsen
  • E. Matthews, University College Dublin
  • ,
  • F. Carter, University College Dublin
  • ,
  • Amelie Vanlierde, Wallon Agricultural Research Centre
  • ,
  • Gert Opsomer, Ghent University, Belgium
  • Nicolas Gengler, University of Liege
  • ,
  • F Dehareng, Walloon Agricultural Research Centre, Gembloux, Belgium, Wallon Agricultural Research Centre, Belgium
  • M. A. Crowe, University College Dublin, Ireland
  • Klaus Lønne Ingvartsen
  • Leslie Foldager
Both blood- and milk-based biomarkers have been analysed for decades in research settings, although often only in one herd, and without focus on the variation in the biomarkers that are specifically related to herd or diet. Biomarkers can be used to detect physiological imbalance and disease risk and may have a role in precision livestock farming (PLF). For use in PLF, it is important to quantify normal variation in specific biomarkers and the source of this variation. The objective of this study was to estimate the between- and within-herd variation in a number of blood metabolites (β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids, glucose and serum IGF-1), milk metabolites (free glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, urea, isocitrate, BHB and uric acid), milk enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase)) and composite indicators for metabolic imbalances (Physiological Imbalance-index and energy balance), to help facilitate their adoption within PLF. Blood and milk were sampled from 234 Holstein dairy cows from 6 experimental herds, each in a different European country, and offered a total of 10 different diets. Blood was sampled on 2 occasions at approximately 14 days-in-milk (DIM) and 35 DIM. Milk samples were collected twice weekly (in total 2750 samples) from DIM 1 to 50. Multilevel random regression models were used to estimate the variance components and to calculate the intraclass correlations (ICCs). The ICCs for the milk metabolites, when adjusted for parity and DIM at sampling, demonstrated that between 12% (glucose-6-phosphate) and 46% (urea) of the variation in the metabolites’ levels could be associated with the herd-diet combination. Intraclass Correlations related to the herd-diet combination were generally higher for blood metabolites, from 17% (cholesterol) to approximately 46% (BHB and urea). The high ICCs for urea suggest that this biomarker can be used for monitoring on herd level. The low variance within cow for NAGase indicates that few samples would be needed to describe the status and potentially a general reference value could be used. The low ICC for most of the biomarkers and larger within cow variation emphasises that multiple samples would be needed - most likely on the individual cows - for making the biomarkers useful for monitoring. The majority of biomarkers were influenced by parity and DIM which indicate that these should be accounted for if the biomarker should be used for monitoring.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1751731119002659
Pages (from-to)1067-1075
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - May 2020

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