Beam damage in operando X-ray diffraction studies of Li-ion batteries

Christian Kolle Christensen, Martin Aaskov Karlsen, Andreas Østergaard Drejer, Bettina Pilgaard Andersen, Christian Lund Jakobsen, Morten Johansen, Daniel Risskov Sørensen, Innokenty Kantor, Mads Ry Vogel Jørgensen, Dorthe Bomholdt Ravnsbæk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Operando powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) is a widely employed method for the investigation of structural evolution and phase transitions in electrodes for rechargeable batteries. Due to the advantages of high brilliance and high X-ray energies, the experiments are often carried out at synchrotron facilities. It is known that the X-ray exposure can cause beam damage in the battery cell, resulting in hindrance of the electrochemical reaction. This study investigates the extent of X-ray beam damage during operando PXRD synchrotron experiments on battery materials with varying X-ray energies, amount of X-ray exposure and battery cell chemistries. Battery cells were exposed to 15, 25 or 35 keV X-rays (with varying dose) during charge or discharge in a battery test cell specially designed for operando experiments. The observed beam damage was probed by µPXRD mapping of the electrodes recovered from the operando battery cell after charge/discharge. The investigation reveals that the beam damage depends strongly on both the X-ray energy and the amount of exposure, and that it also depends strongly on the cell chemistry, i.e. the chemical composition of the electrode.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Synchrotron Radiation
IssuePart 3
Pages (from-to)561-570
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • batteries
  • beam damage
  • operando studies
  • powder diffraction


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