Department of Economics and Business Economics

Autoimmune Diseases and Severe Infections as Risk Factors for Mood Disorders: A Nationwide Study

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Autoimmune Diseases and Severe Infections as Risk Factors for Mood Disorders : A Nationwide Study. / Benros, Michael E; Waltoft, Berit L; Nordentoft, Merete; Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Eaton, William W; Krogh, Jesper; Mortensen, Preben B.

In: Archives of general psychiatry, Vol. 70, No. 8, 12.06.2013, p. 1-9.

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Benros, ME, Waltoft, BL, Nordentoft, M, Østergaard, SD, Eaton, WW, Krogh, J & Mortensen, PB 2013, 'Autoimmune Diseases and Severe Infections as Risk Factors for Mood Disorders: A Nationwide Study', Archives of general psychiatry, vol. 70, no. 8, pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1111

APA

Benros, M. E., Waltoft, B. L., Nordentoft, M., Østergaard, S. D., Eaton, W. W., Krogh, J., & Mortensen, P. B. (2013). Autoimmune Diseases and Severe Infections as Risk Factors for Mood Disorders: A Nationwide Study. Archives of general psychiatry, 70(8), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1111

CBE

MLA

Vancouver

Benros ME, Waltoft BL, Nordentoft M, Østergaard SD, Eaton WW, Krogh J et al. Autoimmune Diseases and Severe Infections as Risk Factors for Mood Disorders: A Nationwide Study. Archives of general psychiatry. 2013 Jun 12;70(8):1-9. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1111

Author

Benros, Michael E ; Waltoft, Berit L ; Nordentoft, Merete ; Østergaard, Søren Dinesen ; Eaton, William W ; Krogh, Jesper ; Mortensen, Preben B. / Autoimmune Diseases and Severe Infections as Risk Factors for Mood Disorders : A Nationwide Study. In: Archives of general psychiatry. 2013 ; Vol. 70, No. 8. pp. 1-9.

Bibtex

@article{177b1ec2be7941bdaf77c8123578c166,
title = "Autoimmune Diseases and Severe Infections as Risk Factors for Mood Disorders: A Nationwide Study",
abstract = "IMPORTANCE Mood disorders frequently co-occur with medical diseases that involve inflammatory pathophysiologic mechanisms. Immune responses can affect the brain and might increase the risk of mood disorders, but longitudinal studies of comorbidity are lacking. OBJECTIVE To estimate the effect of autoimmune diseases and infections on the risk of developing mood disorders. DESIGN Nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study with 78 million person-years of follow-up. Data were analyzed with survival analysis techniques and adjusted for calendar year, age, and sex. SETTING Individual data drawn from Danish longitudinal registers. PARTICIPANTS A total of 3.56 million people born between 1945 and 1996 were followed up from January 1, 1977, through December 31, 2010, with 91 637 people having hospital contacts for mood disorders. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The risk of a first lifetime diagnosis of mood disorder assigned by a psychiatrist in a hospital, outpatient clinic, or emergency department setting. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and accompanying 95{\%} CIs are used as measures of relative risk. RESULTS A prior hospital contact because of autoimmune disease increased the risk of a subsequent mood disorder diagnosis by 45{\%} (IRR, 1.45; 95{\%} CI, 1.39-1.52). Any history of hospitalization for infection increased the risk of later mood disorders by 62{\%} (IRR, 1.62; 95{\%} CI, 1.60-1.64). The 2 risk factors interacted in synergy and increased the risk of subsequent mood disorders even further (IRR, 2.35; 95{\%} CI, 2.25-2.46). The number of infections and autoimmune diseases increased the risk of mood disorders in a dose-response relationship. Approximately one-third (32{\%}) of the participants diagnosed as having a mood disorder had a previous hospital contact because of an infection, whereas 5{\%} had a previous hospital contact because of an autoimmune disease. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Autoimmune diseases and infections are risk factors for subsequent mood disorder diagnosis. These associations seem compatible with an immunologic hypothesis for the development of mood disorders in subgroups of patients.",
author = "Benros, {Michael E} and Waltoft, {Berit L} and Merete Nordentoft and {\O}stergaard, {S{\o}ren Dinesen} and Eaton, {William W} and Jesper Krogh and Mortensen, {Preben B}",
year = "2013",
month = "6",
day = "12",
doi = "10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1111",
language = "English",
volume = "70",
pages = "1--9",
journal = "J A M A Psychiatry",
issn = "0003-990X",
publisher = "The JAMA Network",
number = "8",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Autoimmune Diseases and Severe Infections as Risk Factors for Mood Disorders

T2 - A Nationwide Study

AU - Benros, Michael E

AU - Waltoft, Berit L

AU - Nordentoft, Merete

AU - Østergaard, Søren Dinesen

AU - Eaton, William W

AU - Krogh, Jesper

AU - Mortensen, Preben B

PY - 2013/6/12

Y1 - 2013/6/12

N2 - IMPORTANCE Mood disorders frequently co-occur with medical diseases that involve inflammatory pathophysiologic mechanisms. Immune responses can affect the brain and might increase the risk of mood disorders, but longitudinal studies of comorbidity are lacking. OBJECTIVE To estimate the effect of autoimmune diseases and infections on the risk of developing mood disorders. DESIGN Nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study with 78 million person-years of follow-up. Data were analyzed with survival analysis techniques and adjusted for calendar year, age, and sex. SETTING Individual data drawn from Danish longitudinal registers. PARTICIPANTS A total of 3.56 million people born between 1945 and 1996 were followed up from January 1, 1977, through December 31, 2010, with 91 637 people having hospital contacts for mood disorders. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The risk of a first lifetime diagnosis of mood disorder assigned by a psychiatrist in a hospital, outpatient clinic, or emergency department setting. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and accompanying 95% CIs are used as measures of relative risk. RESULTS A prior hospital contact because of autoimmune disease increased the risk of a subsequent mood disorder diagnosis by 45% (IRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.39-1.52). Any history of hospitalization for infection increased the risk of later mood disorders by 62% (IRR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.60-1.64). The 2 risk factors interacted in synergy and increased the risk of subsequent mood disorders even further (IRR, 2.35; 95% CI, 2.25-2.46). The number of infections and autoimmune diseases increased the risk of mood disorders in a dose-response relationship. Approximately one-third (32%) of the participants diagnosed as having a mood disorder had a previous hospital contact because of an infection, whereas 5% had a previous hospital contact because of an autoimmune disease. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Autoimmune diseases and infections are risk factors for subsequent mood disorder diagnosis. These associations seem compatible with an immunologic hypothesis for the development of mood disorders in subgroups of patients.

AB - IMPORTANCE Mood disorders frequently co-occur with medical diseases that involve inflammatory pathophysiologic mechanisms. Immune responses can affect the brain and might increase the risk of mood disorders, but longitudinal studies of comorbidity are lacking. OBJECTIVE To estimate the effect of autoimmune diseases and infections on the risk of developing mood disorders. DESIGN Nationwide, population-based, prospective cohort study with 78 million person-years of follow-up. Data were analyzed with survival analysis techniques and adjusted for calendar year, age, and sex. SETTING Individual data drawn from Danish longitudinal registers. PARTICIPANTS A total of 3.56 million people born between 1945 and 1996 were followed up from January 1, 1977, through December 31, 2010, with 91 637 people having hospital contacts for mood disorders. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The risk of a first lifetime diagnosis of mood disorder assigned by a psychiatrist in a hospital, outpatient clinic, or emergency department setting. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and accompanying 95% CIs are used as measures of relative risk. RESULTS A prior hospital contact because of autoimmune disease increased the risk of a subsequent mood disorder diagnosis by 45% (IRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.39-1.52). Any history of hospitalization for infection increased the risk of later mood disorders by 62% (IRR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.60-1.64). The 2 risk factors interacted in synergy and increased the risk of subsequent mood disorders even further (IRR, 2.35; 95% CI, 2.25-2.46). The number of infections and autoimmune diseases increased the risk of mood disorders in a dose-response relationship. Approximately one-third (32%) of the participants diagnosed as having a mood disorder had a previous hospital contact because of an infection, whereas 5% had a previous hospital contact because of an autoimmune disease. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Autoimmune diseases and infections are risk factors for subsequent mood disorder diagnosis. These associations seem compatible with an immunologic hypothesis for the development of mood disorders in subgroups of patients.

U2 - 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1111

DO - 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1111

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 23760347

VL - 70

SP - 1

EP - 9

JO - J A M A Psychiatry

JF - J A M A Psychiatry

SN - 0003-990X

IS - 8

ER -