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Aromatic organosulfates in atmospheric aerosols: Synthesis, characterization, and abundance

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  • Sean Staudt, University of Iowa, Unknown
  • Shuvashish Kundu, University of Iowa, Unknown
  • Hans-Joachim Lehmler, University of Iowa, Unknown
  • Xianran He, University of Iowa, Unknown
  • Tianqu Cui, University of North Carolina, United States
  • Ying-Hsuan Lin, University of North Carolina, Unknown
  • Kasper Kristensen
  • Marianne Glasius
  • Xiaolu Zhang, Georgia Institute of Technology, Unknown
  • Rodney J. Weber, Georgia Institute of Technology, Unknown
  • Jason D. Surratt, University of North Carolina, United States
  • Elizabeth A. Stone, University of Iowa, Unknown
Aromatic organosulfates are identified and quantified in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from Lahore, Pakistan, Godavari, Nepal, and Pasadena, California. To support detection and quantification, authentic standards of phenyl sulfate, benzyl sulfate, 3- and 4-methylphenyl sulfate and 2-, 3-, and 4-methylbenzyl sulfate were synthesized. Authentic standards and aerosol samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to negative electrospray ionization (ESI) quadrupole time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometry. Benzyl sulfate was present in all three locations at concentrations ranging from 4 to 90 pg m(-3). Phenyl sulfate, methylphenyl sulfates and methylbenzyl sulfates were observed intermittently with abundances of 4 pg m(-3), 2-31 pg m(-3), 109 pg m(-3), respectively. Characteristic fragment ions of aromatic organosulfates include the sulfite radical (center dot SO(3) over bar, m/z 80) and the sulfate radical (center dot SO(4) over bar, m/z 96). Instrumental response factors of phenyl and benzyl sulfates varied by a factor of 4.3, indicating that structurally-similar organosulfates have significantly different instrumental responses and highlighting the need to develop authentic standards for absolute quantitation organosulfates. In an effort to better understand the sources of aromatic organosulfates to the atmosphere, chamber experiments with the precursor toluene were conducted under conditions that form biogenic organosulfates. Aromatic organosulfates were not detected in the chamber samples, suggesting that they form through different pathways, have different precursors (e.g. naphthalene or methylnaphthalene), or are emitted from primary sources. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume94
Pages (from-to)366-373
Number of pages8
ISSN1352-2310
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2014

    Research areas

  • Sulfate ester synthesis, Atmospheric aerosol, Mass spectrometry, Toluene, SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL, HUMIC-LIKE SUBSTANCES, MASS-SPECTROMETRY, RELATIVE-HUMIDITY, PHOTOOXIDATION, HYDROCARBONS, LOCATIONS, PRODUCTS, PAKISTAN, EPOXIDE

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