Application of Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) to Increase the Efficiency of Bakery Production: A Case Study

Majhar Babor, Line Pedersen, Ulla Kidmose, Olivier Paquet-Durand, Bernd Hitzmann

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Minimizing the makespan is an important research topic in manufacturing engineering because it accounts for significant production expenses. In bakery manufacturing, ovens are high-energy-consuming machines that run throughout the production time. Finding an optimal combination of makespan and oven idle time in the decisive objective space can result in substantial financial savings. This paper investigates the hybrid no-wait flow shop problems from bakeries. Production scheduling problems from multiple bakery goods manufacturing lines are optimized using Pareto-based multi-objective optimization algorithms, non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), and a random search algorithm. NSGA-II improved NSGA, leading to better convergence and spread of the solutions in the objective space, by removing computational complexity and adding elitism and diversity strategies. Instead of a single solution, a set of optimal solutions represents the trade-offs between objectives, makespan and oven idle time to improve cost-effectiveness. Computational results from actual instances show that the solutions from the algorithms significantly outperform existing schedules. The NSGA-II finds a complete set of optimal solutions for the cases, whereas the random search procedure only delivers a subset. The study shows that the application of multi-objective optimization in bakery production scheduling can reduce oven idle time from 1.7% to 26% while minimizing the makespan by up to 12%. Furthermore, by penalizing the best makespan a marginal amount, alternative optimal solutions minimize oven idle time by up to 61% compared to the actual schedule. The proposed strategy can be effective for small and medium-sized bakeries to lower production costs and reduce CO 2 emissions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1623
Journal MDPI
Number of pages22
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • bakery manufacturing
  • efficiency
  • multi-objective optimization
  • no-wait flow shop


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