An Ultrasonically-Powered System for 1.06mm3 Implantable Optogenetics and Drug Delivery Dust

Kjeld Laursen, Milad Zamani, Yasser Rezaeiyan, Seyedsina Hosseini, Tanmay Mondal, Brian Corbett, Abdel Mouttalib Ouagazzal, Marianne Amalric, Farshad Moradi

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review


This paper presents an ultrasonically powered micro-system for deep tissue optogenetic stimulation. The developed system is composed of a Base for Powering and Controlling (BPC) and an implantable Dust for optogenetics and drug delivery. The Dust consists of a piezoelectric crystal, a rectifier chip, and a micro-scale custom-designed light-emitting-diode (μLED) integrated, miniaturized, and envisioned to be used for freely moving animal studies. The proposed Dust operates in frequencies up to 5 MHz, power levels in the 0–10 mW range, achieves start-up within 1.8 μs at 2.9 MHz operating frequency at 14.4 mW/mm2 ultrasound power density, and 98.1% chip efficiency at 2 mW input power. With the BPC implemented and attached to (500 μm)3 PZT4 crystals, set to 60 V at 2.8 MHz operating frequency at 3 mm distance in demineralized water, the dust delivered up to 6 mW to its load (μLED for optogenetics), which translates to 0.11% total system efficiency.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs
Pages (from-to)3937-3941
Number of pages5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2023


  • Bridge circuits
  • Crystals
  • Dust
  • Light emitting diodes
  • Logic gates
  • Optogenetic stimulation
  • Optogenetics
  • piezoelectric
  • rectifier
  • Rectifiers
  • Substrates
  • Ultrasonic power transfer
  • optogenetic stimulation
  • ultrasonic power transfer


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