An extensive common-garden study with domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon in the wild reveals impact on smolt production and shifts in fitness traits

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Standard

An extensive common-garden study with domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon in the wild reveals impact on smolt production and shifts in fitness traits. / Skaala, Øystein; Besnier, Francois; Borgstrøm, Reidar; Barlaup, Bjørn Torgeir; Sørvik, Anne Grete; Normann, Eirik; Østebø, Britt Iren; Hansen, Michael Møller; Glover, Kevin Alan.

In: Evolutionary Applications, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2019, p. 1001-1016.

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Skaala, Ø, Besnier, F, Borgstrøm, R, Barlaup, BT, Sørvik, AG, Normann, E, Østebø, BI, Hansen, MM & Glover, KA 2019, 'An extensive common-garden study with domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon in the wild reveals impact on smolt production and shifts in fitness traits', Evolutionary Applications, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1001-1016. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12777

APA

Skaala, Ø., Besnier, F., Borgstrøm, R., Barlaup, B. T., Sørvik, A. G., Normann, E., ... Glover, K. A. (2019). An extensive common-garden study with domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon in the wild reveals impact on smolt production and shifts in fitness traits. Evolutionary Applications, 12(5), 1001-1016. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12777

CBE

Skaala Ø, Besnier F, Borgstrøm R, Barlaup BT, Sørvik AG, Normann E, Østebø BI, Hansen MM, Glover KA. 2019. An extensive common-garden study with domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon in the wild reveals impact on smolt production and shifts in fitness traits. Evolutionary Applications. 12(5):1001-1016. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12777

MLA

Vancouver

Skaala Ø, Besnier F, Borgstrøm R, Barlaup BT, Sørvik AG, Normann E et al. An extensive common-garden study with domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon in the wild reveals impact on smolt production and shifts in fitness traits. Evolutionary Applications. 2019;12(5):1001-1016. https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12777

Author

Skaala, Øystein ; Besnier, Francois ; Borgstrøm, Reidar ; Barlaup, Bjørn Torgeir ; Sørvik, Anne Grete ; Normann, Eirik ; Østebø, Britt Iren ; Hansen, Michael Møller ; Glover, Kevin Alan. / An extensive common-garden study with domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon in the wild reveals impact on smolt production and shifts in fitness traits. In: Evolutionary Applications. 2019 ; Vol. 12, No. 5. pp. 1001-1016.

Bibtex

@article{2fd977fd105d44d5a6cf0f37247b59f4,
title = "An extensive common-garden study with domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon in the wild reveals impact on smolt production and shifts in fitness traits",
abstract = "Interactions between domesticated escapees and wild conspecifics represent a threat to the genetic integrity and fitness of native populations. For Atlantic salmon, the recurrent presence of large numbers of domesticated escapees in the wild makes it necessary to better understand their impacts on native populations. We planted 254,400 eggs from 75 families of domesticated, F1-hybrid, and wild salmon in a river containing up- and downstream traps. Additionally, 41,630 hatchery smolts of the same pedigrees were released into the river. Over 8 years, 6,669 out-migrating smolts and 356 returning adults were recaptured and identified to their families of origin with DNA. In comparison with wild salmon, domesticated fish had substantially lower egg to smolt survival (1.8{\%} vs. 3.8{\%} across cohorts), they migrated earlier in the year (11.8 days earlier across years), but they only displayed marginally larger smolt sizes and marginally lower smolt ages. Upon return to freshwater, domesticated salmon were substantially larger at age than wild salmon (2.4 vs. 2.0, 4.8 vs. 3.2, and 8.5 vs. 5.6 kg across sexes for 1, 2, and 3 sea-winter fish) and displayed substantially lower released smolt to adult survival (0.41{\%} vs. 0.94{\%} across releases). Overall, egg-to-returning adult survival ratios were 1:0.76:0.30 and 1:0.44:0.21 for wild:F1-hybrid:domesticated salmon, respectively, using two different types of data. This study represents the most updated and extensive analysis of domesticated, hybrid, and wild salmon in the wild and provides the first documentation of a clear genetic difference in the timing of smolt migration—an adaptive trait presumed to be linked with optimal timing of entry to seawater. We conclude that spawning and hybridization of domesticated escapees can lead to (i) reduced wild smolt output and therefore wild adult abundance, through resource competition in freshwater, (ii) reduced total adult abundance due to freshwater competition and reduced marine survival of domesticated salmon, and (iii) maladaptive changes in phenotypic traits.",
keywords = "aquaculture, competition, fitness, genetic, hybridization, introgression, salmon",
author = "{\O}ystein Skaala and Francois Besnier and Reidar Borgstr{\o}m and Barlaup, {Bj{\o}rn Torgeir} and S{\o}rvik, {Anne Grete} and Eirik Normann and {\O}steb{\o}, {Britt Iren} and Hansen, {Michael M{\o}ller} and Glover, {Kevin Alan}",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1111/eva.12777",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
pages = "1001--1016",
journal = "Evolutionary Applications (Online)",
issn = "1752-4563",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc",
number = "5",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - An extensive common-garden study with domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon in the wild reveals impact on smolt production and shifts in fitness traits

AU - Skaala, Øystein

AU - Besnier, Francois

AU - Borgstrøm, Reidar

AU - Barlaup, Bjørn Torgeir

AU - Sørvik, Anne Grete

AU - Normann, Eirik

AU - Østebø, Britt Iren

AU - Hansen, Michael Møller

AU - Glover, Kevin Alan

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Interactions between domesticated escapees and wild conspecifics represent a threat to the genetic integrity and fitness of native populations. For Atlantic salmon, the recurrent presence of large numbers of domesticated escapees in the wild makes it necessary to better understand their impacts on native populations. We planted 254,400 eggs from 75 families of domesticated, F1-hybrid, and wild salmon in a river containing up- and downstream traps. Additionally, 41,630 hatchery smolts of the same pedigrees were released into the river. Over 8 years, 6,669 out-migrating smolts and 356 returning adults were recaptured and identified to their families of origin with DNA. In comparison with wild salmon, domesticated fish had substantially lower egg to smolt survival (1.8% vs. 3.8% across cohorts), they migrated earlier in the year (11.8 days earlier across years), but they only displayed marginally larger smolt sizes and marginally lower smolt ages. Upon return to freshwater, domesticated salmon were substantially larger at age than wild salmon (2.4 vs. 2.0, 4.8 vs. 3.2, and 8.5 vs. 5.6 kg across sexes for 1, 2, and 3 sea-winter fish) and displayed substantially lower released smolt to adult survival (0.41% vs. 0.94% across releases). Overall, egg-to-returning adult survival ratios were 1:0.76:0.30 and 1:0.44:0.21 for wild:F1-hybrid:domesticated salmon, respectively, using two different types of data. This study represents the most updated and extensive analysis of domesticated, hybrid, and wild salmon in the wild and provides the first documentation of a clear genetic difference in the timing of smolt migration—an adaptive trait presumed to be linked with optimal timing of entry to seawater. We conclude that spawning and hybridization of domesticated escapees can lead to (i) reduced wild smolt output and therefore wild adult abundance, through resource competition in freshwater, (ii) reduced total adult abundance due to freshwater competition and reduced marine survival of domesticated salmon, and (iii) maladaptive changes in phenotypic traits.

AB - Interactions between domesticated escapees and wild conspecifics represent a threat to the genetic integrity and fitness of native populations. For Atlantic salmon, the recurrent presence of large numbers of domesticated escapees in the wild makes it necessary to better understand their impacts on native populations. We planted 254,400 eggs from 75 families of domesticated, F1-hybrid, and wild salmon in a river containing up- and downstream traps. Additionally, 41,630 hatchery smolts of the same pedigrees were released into the river. Over 8 years, 6,669 out-migrating smolts and 356 returning adults were recaptured and identified to their families of origin with DNA. In comparison with wild salmon, domesticated fish had substantially lower egg to smolt survival (1.8% vs. 3.8% across cohorts), they migrated earlier in the year (11.8 days earlier across years), but they only displayed marginally larger smolt sizes and marginally lower smolt ages. Upon return to freshwater, domesticated salmon were substantially larger at age than wild salmon (2.4 vs. 2.0, 4.8 vs. 3.2, and 8.5 vs. 5.6 kg across sexes for 1, 2, and 3 sea-winter fish) and displayed substantially lower released smolt to adult survival (0.41% vs. 0.94% across releases). Overall, egg-to-returning adult survival ratios were 1:0.76:0.30 and 1:0.44:0.21 for wild:F1-hybrid:domesticated salmon, respectively, using two different types of data. This study represents the most updated and extensive analysis of domesticated, hybrid, and wild salmon in the wild and provides the first documentation of a clear genetic difference in the timing of smolt migration—an adaptive trait presumed to be linked with optimal timing of entry to seawater. We conclude that spawning and hybridization of domesticated escapees can lead to (i) reduced wild smolt output and therefore wild adult abundance, through resource competition in freshwater, (ii) reduced total adult abundance due to freshwater competition and reduced marine survival of domesticated salmon, and (iii) maladaptive changes in phenotypic traits.

KW - aquaculture

KW - competition

KW - fitness

KW - genetic

KW - hybridization

KW - introgression

KW - salmon

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85065443781&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/eva.12777

DO - 10.1111/eva.12777

M3 - Journal article

VL - 12

SP - 1001

EP - 1016

JO - Evolutionary Applications (Online)

JF - Evolutionary Applications (Online)

SN - 1752-4563

IS - 5

ER -