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An atlas of active enhancers across human cell types and tissues

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  • Robin Andersson, University of Copenhagen
  • ,
  • Claudia Gebhard, 1] Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg, Germany [2] Regensburg Centre for Interventional Immunology (RCI), D-93042 Regensburg, Germany [3]., Unknown
  • Irene Miguel-Escalada, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK., Unknown
  • Ilka Hoof, University of Copenhagen
  • ,
  • Jette Bornholdt, University of Copenhagen
  • ,
  • Mette Boyd, University of Copenhagen
  • ,
  • Yun Chen, University of Copenhagen
  • ,
  • Xiaobei Zhao, 1] The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology & Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark [2] Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.
  • ,
  • Christian Schmidl, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg, Germany., Unknown
  • Takahiro Suzuki, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • Evgenia Ntini, Centre for mRNP Biogenesis and Metabolism, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, C.F. Møllers Alle 3, Building 1130, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark., Denmark
  • Erik Arner, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • Eivind Valen, 1] The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology & Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark [2] Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.
  • ,
  • Kang Li, University of Copenhagen, Unknown
  • Lucia Schwarzfischer, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg, Germany., Unknown
  • Dagmar Glatz, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg, Germany., Unknown
  • Johanna Raithel, Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg, Germany., Unknown
  • Berit Lilje, University of Copenhagen
  • ,
  • Nicolas Rapin, 1] The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology & Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark [2] The Finsen Laboratory, Rigshospitalet and Danish Stem Cell Centre (DanStem), University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200, Denmark., Unknown
  • Frederik Otzen Bagger, 1] The Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology & Biotech Research and Innovation Centre, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark [2] The Finsen Laboratory, Rigshospitalet and Danish Stem Cell Centre (DanStem), University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, DK-2200, Denmark., Unknown
  • Mette Jørgensen, University of Copenhagen, Unknown
  • Peter Refsing Andersen
  • Nicolas Bertin, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • Owen Rackham, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • A Maxwell Burroughs, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • J Kenneth Baillie, Roslin Institute, Edinburgh University, Easter Bush, Midlothian, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, UK., Unknown
  • Yuri Ishizu, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • Yuri Shimizu, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • Erina Furuhata, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • Shiori Maeda, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • Yutaka Negishi, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • Christopher J Mungall, Genomics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road MS 64-121, Berkeley, California 94720, USA., Unknown
  • Terrence F Meehan, EMBL Outstation - Hinxton, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK., Unknown
  • Timo Lassmann, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • Masayoshi Itoh, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [3] RIKEN Preventive Medicine and Diagnosis Innovation Program, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • Hideya Kawaji, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Preventive Medicine and Diagnosis Innovation Program, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • Naoto Kondo, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Preventive Medicine and Diagnosis Innovation Program, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • Jun Kawai, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Preventive Medicine and Diagnosis Innovation Program, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan.
  • ,
  • Andreas Lennartsson, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Hälsovägen 7, SE-4183 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
  • ,
  • Carsten O Daub, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [3] Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Hälsovägen 7, SE-4183 Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden., Unknown
  • Peter Heutink, Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, Netherlands., Unknown
  • David A Hume, Roslin Institute, Edinburgh University, Easter Bush, Midlothian, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, UK., Unknown
  • Torben Heick Jensen
  • Harukazu Suzuki, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • Yoshihide Hayashizaki, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Preventive Medicine and Diagnosis Innovation Program, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan.
  • ,
  • Ferenc Müller, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK., Unknown
  • Alistair R R Forrest, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan., Unknown
  • Piero Carninci, 1] RIKEN OMICS Science Centre, RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan [2] RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies (Division of Genomic Technologies), RIKEN Yokohama Institute, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan.
  • ,
  • Michael Rehli, 1] Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg, Germany [2] Regensburg Centre for Interventional Immunology (RCI), D-93042 Regensburg, Germany., Unknown
  • Albin Sandelin, University of Copenhagen
  • ,
  • FANTOM Consortium

Enhancers control the correct temporal and cell-type-specific activation of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. Knowing their properties, regulatory activity and targets is crucial to understand the regulation of differentiation and homeostasis. Here we use the FANTOM5 panel of samples, covering the majority of human tissues and cell types, to produce an atlas of active, in vivo-transcribed enhancers. We show that enhancers share properties with CpG-poor messenger RNA promoters but produce bidirectional, exosome-sensitive, relatively short unspliced RNAs, the generation of which is strongly related to enhancer activity. The atlas is used to compare regulatory programs between different cells at unprecedented depth, to identify disease-associated regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms, and to classify cell-type-specific and ubiquitous enhancers. We further explore the utility of enhancer redundancy, which explains gene expression strength rather than expression patterns. The online FANTOM5 enhancer atlas represents a unique resource for studies on cell-type-specific enhancers and gene regulation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNature
Volume507
Pages (from-to)455-461
Number of pages7
ISSN0028-0836
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Mar 2014

    Research areas

  • Atlases as Topic, Cell Line, Cells, Cultured, Cluster Analysis, Enhancer Elements, Genetic, Gene Expression Regulation, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, HeLa Cells, Humans, Molecular Sequence Annotation, Organ Specificity, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Promoter Regions, Genetic, RNA, Messenger, Transcription Initiation Site, Transcription Initiation, Genetic

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