Ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy: Practical considerations and experimental frontiers

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  • Lena Trotochaud, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • ,
  • Ashley R. Head, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • ,
  • Osman Karslioglu, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • ,
  • Line Kyhl Hansen
  • Hendrik Bluhm, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Over the past several decades, ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) has emerged as a powerful technique for in situ and operando investigations of chemical reactions under relevant ambient atmospheres far from ultra-high vacuum conditions. This review focuses on exemplary cases of APXPS experiments, giving special consideration to experimental techniques, challenges, and limitations specific to distinct condensed matter interfaces. We discuss APXPS experiments on solid/vapor interfaces, including the special case of 2D films of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride on metal substrates with intercalated gas molecules, liquid/vapor interfaces, and liquid/solid interfaces, which are a relatively new class of interfaces being probed by APXPS. We also provide a critical evaluation of the persistent limitations and challenges of APXPS, as well as the current experimental frontiers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number053002
JournalJournal of Physics: Condensed Matter
Number of pages29
Publication statusPublished - 8 Feb 2017

    Research areas

  • surface science, ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, solid/liquid interface, solid/vapor interface, liquid/vapor interface, intercalation, 2D materials, HEXAGONAL BORON-NITRIDE, CHEMICAL-VAPOR-DEPOSITION, SITU X-RAY, OXYGEN REDUCTION REACTION, ROOT-5)R27-DEGREES-O SURFACE OXIDE, TEMPERATURE GRAPHENE GROWTH, METAL-CATALYZED REACTIONS, FUEL-CELL CATHODE, IN-SITU, DOPED GRAPHENE

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