Advanced bioengineering of female germ cells to preserve fertility

Sadegh Ghorbani, Hossein Eyni, Mohammad Hadi Norahan, Payam Zarrintaj, Nadine Urban, Alireza Mohammadzadeh, Ebrahim Mostafavi, Duncan S. Sutherland

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperReviewResearchpeer-review


Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are considered as complex and species-specific cellular differentiation processes, which depend on the in vivo ovarian follicular environment and endocrine cues. Considerable efforts have been devoted to driving the differentiation of female primordial germ cells toward mature oocytes outside of the body. The recent experimental attempts have laid stress on offering a suitable microenvironment to assist the in vitro folliculogenesis and oogenesis. Despite developing a variety of bioengineering techniques and generating functional mature gametes through in vitro oogenesis in earlier studies, we still lack knowledge of appropriate microenvironment conditions for building biomimetic culture systems for female fertility preservation. Therefore, this review paper can provide a source for a large body of scientists developing cutting-edge in vitro culture systems for female germ cells or setting up the next generation of reproductive medicine as feasible options for female infertility treatment. The focal point of this review outlines advanced bioengineering technologies such as 3D biofabricated hydrogels/scaffolds and microfluidic systems utilized with female germlines for fertility preservation through in vitro folliculogenesis and oogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
JournalBiology of Reproduction
Pages (from-to)1177-1204
Number of pages28
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • advanced tissue engineering
  • biomaterials
  • female germ cells
  • female reproductive system
  • in vitro folliculogenesis
  • in vitro oogenesis
  • stem cells


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