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Acute aquatic toxicity of sulfur mustard and its degradation products to Daphnia magna

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Standard

Acute aquatic toxicity of sulfur mustard and its degradation products to Daphnia magna. / Czub, Michał; Nawała, Jakub; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Brzeziński, Tomasz; Maszczyk, Piotr; Sanderson, Hans; Fabisiak, Jacek; Bełdowski, Jacek; Kotwicki, Lech.

In: Marine Environmental Research, Vol. 161, 105077, 10.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Czub, M, Nawała, J, Popiel, S, Dziedzic, D, Brzeziński, T, Maszczyk, P, Sanderson, H, Fabisiak, J, Bełdowski, J & Kotwicki, L 2020, 'Acute aquatic toxicity of sulfur mustard and its degradation products to Daphnia magna', Marine Environmental Research, vol. 161, 105077. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105077

APA

Czub, M., Nawała, J., Popiel, S., Dziedzic, D., Brzeziński, T., Maszczyk, P., Sanderson, H., Fabisiak, J., Bełdowski, J., & Kotwicki, L. (2020). Acute aquatic toxicity of sulfur mustard and its degradation products to Daphnia magna. Marine Environmental Research, 161, [105077]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105077

CBE

Czub M, Nawała J, Popiel S, Dziedzic D, Brzeziński T, Maszczyk P, Sanderson H, Fabisiak J, Bełdowski J, Kotwicki L. 2020. Acute aquatic toxicity of sulfur mustard and its degradation products to Daphnia magna. Marine Environmental Research. 161:Article 105077. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105077

MLA

Vancouver

Czub M, Nawała J, Popiel S, Dziedzic D, Brzeziński T, Maszczyk P et al. Acute aquatic toxicity of sulfur mustard and its degradation products to Daphnia magna. Marine Environmental Research. 2020 Oct;161. 105077. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105077

Author

Czub, Michał ; Nawała, Jakub ; Popiel, Stanisław ; Dziedzic, Daniel ; Brzeziński, Tomasz ; Maszczyk, Piotr ; Sanderson, Hans ; Fabisiak, Jacek ; Bełdowski, Jacek ; Kotwicki, Lech. / Acute aquatic toxicity of sulfur mustard and its degradation products to Daphnia magna. In: Marine Environmental Research. 2020 ; Vol. 161.

Bibtex

@article{aaaab1704159405aa1308fee2e26e03c,
title = "Acute aquatic toxicity of sulfur mustard and its degradation products to Daphnia magna",
abstract = "Sulphur mustard (HD) was the most widely produced chemical warfare agent (CWA) in the history of chemical warfare (CW). Simultaneously, the loads of HD account as by far the largest fraction of the sea-dumped CW. Nowadays its presence in the marine ecosystems recognized as a serious threat for marine users and maritime industries. Although, during over a decade of research much has been done to assess the environmental threats linked with underwater chemical munitions. There are, however, essential gaps in scientific knowledge including scarce information about the aquatic toxicity thresholds of HD and its degradation products. Standardized biotests were performed according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test No. 202: Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test guidelines. Obtained results provide a solid foundation for comparison and categorisation of threats of HD and its degradation products. With the D. magna LC50 aquatic acute toxicity threshold at as low as 224 ± 12 μg × L−1, 1,2,5-trithiepane is very toxic, being one of the most toxic CWA degradation products that have been investigated up to date. It exhibits stronger effects than 1,4,5-oxadithiepane and diluted HD that turn out to be toxic. In total, the toxicity of 7 compounds has been estimated. Whenever possible, toxicity thresholds were compared with previously existing data originating from different biotests and mathematical modelling.",
keywords = "Aquatic environmental toxicity, Chemical warfare agents, CWA degradation Products, Sea dumped CWAs, Sulfur mustard",
author = "Micha{\l} Czub and Jakub Nawa{\l}a and Stanis{\l}aw Popiel and Daniel Dziedzic and Tomasz Brzezi{\'n}ski and Piotr Maszczyk and Hans Sanderson and Jacek Fabisiak and Jacek Be{\l}dowski and Lech Kotwicki",
year = "2020",
month = oct,
doi = "10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105077",
language = "English",
volume = "161",
journal = "Marine Environmental Research",
issn = "0141-1136",
publisher = "Elsevier Ltd",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Acute aquatic toxicity of sulfur mustard and its degradation products to Daphnia magna

AU - Czub, Michał

AU - Nawała, Jakub

AU - Popiel, Stanisław

AU - Dziedzic, Daniel

AU - Brzeziński, Tomasz

AU - Maszczyk, Piotr

AU - Sanderson, Hans

AU - Fabisiak, Jacek

AU - Bełdowski, Jacek

AU - Kotwicki, Lech

PY - 2020/10

Y1 - 2020/10

N2 - Sulphur mustard (HD) was the most widely produced chemical warfare agent (CWA) in the history of chemical warfare (CW). Simultaneously, the loads of HD account as by far the largest fraction of the sea-dumped CW. Nowadays its presence in the marine ecosystems recognized as a serious threat for marine users and maritime industries. Although, during over a decade of research much has been done to assess the environmental threats linked with underwater chemical munitions. There are, however, essential gaps in scientific knowledge including scarce information about the aquatic toxicity thresholds of HD and its degradation products. Standardized biotests were performed according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test No. 202: Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test guidelines. Obtained results provide a solid foundation for comparison and categorisation of threats of HD and its degradation products. With the D. magna LC50 aquatic acute toxicity threshold at as low as 224 ± 12 μg × L−1, 1,2,5-trithiepane is very toxic, being one of the most toxic CWA degradation products that have been investigated up to date. It exhibits stronger effects than 1,4,5-oxadithiepane and diluted HD that turn out to be toxic. In total, the toxicity of 7 compounds has been estimated. Whenever possible, toxicity thresholds were compared with previously existing data originating from different biotests and mathematical modelling.

AB - Sulphur mustard (HD) was the most widely produced chemical warfare agent (CWA) in the history of chemical warfare (CW). Simultaneously, the loads of HD account as by far the largest fraction of the sea-dumped CW. Nowadays its presence in the marine ecosystems recognized as a serious threat for marine users and maritime industries. Although, during over a decade of research much has been done to assess the environmental threats linked with underwater chemical munitions. There are, however, essential gaps in scientific knowledge including scarce information about the aquatic toxicity thresholds of HD and its degradation products. Standardized biotests were performed according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test No. 202: Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test guidelines. Obtained results provide a solid foundation for comparison and categorisation of threats of HD and its degradation products. With the D. magna LC50 aquatic acute toxicity threshold at as low as 224 ± 12 μg × L−1, 1,2,5-trithiepane is very toxic, being one of the most toxic CWA degradation products that have been investigated up to date. It exhibits stronger effects than 1,4,5-oxadithiepane and diluted HD that turn out to be toxic. In total, the toxicity of 7 compounds has been estimated. Whenever possible, toxicity thresholds were compared with previously existing data originating from different biotests and mathematical modelling.

KW - Aquatic environmental toxicity

KW - Chemical warfare agents

KW - CWA degradation Products

KW - Sea dumped CWAs

KW - Sulfur mustard

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85089754573&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105077

DO - 10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105077

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 32853855

AN - SCOPUS:85089754573

VL - 161

JO - Marine Environmental Research

JF - Marine Environmental Research

SN - 0141-1136

M1 - 105077

ER -