A System-Level Feasibility Study of a Lead-Free Ultrasonically Powered Light Delivery Implant for Optogenetics

Saeed Baghaee Ivriq*, Kjeld Laursen, Aske Møller Jørgensen, Tanmay Mondal, Milad Zamani, Yasser Rezaeiyan, Brian Corbett, Bo Brummerstedt Iversen, Farshad Moradi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Body implants play a crucial role in clinical applications, encompassing data acquisition, diagnosis, and disease treatment. However, challenges in size, power consumption, and biocompatibility, particularly in brain applications requiring small, battery-free devices for deep areas, hinder their development. Despite potential advances through simplified, single-purpose devices, such as recording or stimulation, overcoming the power and biocompatibility issues remains a hurdle. Addressing this, the article introduces an ultrasonically powered light delivery implant (LDI) utilizing lead-free piezoelectric material (Li0.08K0.46Na0.46) NbO3 to harvest energy from external ultrasonic waves. The prototype includes a piezoelectric cube, a chip fabricated in 180 nm CMOS technology, and a microscale light-emitting diode (μ-LED) for optogenetics. Achieving an end-to-end efficiency of 0.75%, the LDI holds promise for various optogenetic studies, particularly in animal studies targeting specific brain areas for treating Parkinson’s disease. The delivered optical power on the μ-LED surface, at 14.1mWmm2, presents applicability to diverse studies involving specific opsins.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2300527
JournalAdvanced Intelligent Systems
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • CMOS
  • biocompatible materials
  • brain implants
  • piezoelectric
  • ultrasonic


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