A Method to Quantify the Detailed Risk of Serious Injury in Agricultural Production

Noha M. Hanafy Mahmoud *, Allan Leck Jensen, Cairistiona F.E. Topp, Claus Grøn Sørensen, Michael Nørremark, Vera Eory, Nick Hutchings

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Agricultural injuries are a valuable social sustainability indicator. However, current methods use sector-scale production data, so are unable to assess the impact of changes in individual farming practices. Here, we developed a method that adopts a life cycle approach to quantify the number of serious injuries during agricultural production processes and assess the potential impact of changes in agricultural practices. The method disaggregates agricultural production into operations and estimates the contribution each operation makes to the frequency of different types of injuries. The method was tested using data collected by survey during an expert workshop in which sixteen participants were asked to estimate the parameters related to typical dairy cattle and pig farms. Parameter estimates for specific operations varied considerably between participants, so normalized values were used to disaggregate sector-scale statistics to production operations. The results were in general agreement with the results from other studies. Participants found it challenging to quantify the potential effect of new technologies. Provided suitable empirical statistical data are available, the method can be used to quantify the risk of injury associated with individual products and provide an ex-ante assessment of future developments in farming practices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3859
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • Agriculture
  • Injuries
  • Life cycle analysis
  • Method development
  • Safety
  • Social indicator


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