A combination of chitooligosaccharide and lipochitooligosaccharide recognition promotes arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in Medicago truncatula

Feng Feng, Jongho Sun, Guru V. Radhakrishnan, Tak Lee, Zoltán Bozsóki, Sébastien Fort, Aleksander Gavrin, Kira Gysel, Mikkel B. Thygesen, Kasper Røjkjær Andersen, Simona Radutoiu, Jens Stougaard, Giles E.D. Oldroyd*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Plants associate with beneficial arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi facilitating nutrient acquisition. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi produce chitooligosaccharides (COs) and lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs), that promote symbiosis signalling with resultant oscillations in nuclear-associated calcium. The activation of symbiosis signalling must be balanced with activation of immunity signalling, which in fungal interactions is promoted by COs resulting from the chitinaceous fungal cell wall. Here we demonstrate that COs ranging from CO4-CO8 can induce symbiosis signalling in Medicago truncatula. CO perception is a function of the receptor-like kinases MtCERK1 and LYR4, that activate both immunity and symbiosis signalling. A combination of LCOs and COs act synergistically to enhance symbiosis signalling and suppress immunity signalling and receptors involved in both CO and LCO perception are necessary for mycorrhizal establishment. We conclude that LCOs, when present in a mix with COs, drive a symbiotic outcome and this mix of signals is essential for arbuscular mycorrhizal establishment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5047
JournalNature Communications
Volume10
Issue1
Number of pages12
ISSN2041-1723
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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