3D deformation in nanoporous system for tissue phenotype emergence through stem cell specification

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  • Jens Vinge Nygaard
  • Morten Foss, Denmark
  • Peter Cloetens, ESRF, France
  • Morten Østergaard Andersen, Denmark
  • Moustapha Kassem, Medicinsk Endokrinologi, Denmark
  • Jørgen Kjems, Denmark
  • Flemming Besenbacher, Denmark
The emergence of tissue phenotypes through stem cell
cultivation in scaffolds can be guided by incorporating
functionalisation into the material design. We have
demonstrated how a single scaffold composite, capable
of delivering two sets of nanoparticles loaded with
different siRNA sequences, can guide mesenchymal
stem cells (MSC) to enhance either osteogenic or
adipogenic differentiation dependent on the spatial
distribution of the nanoparticles, [1]. This demonstrate
advanced biochemical functionalisation, but
regeneration of tissues by stem cell response is also
closely related to substrate stiffness [2]. Successful
tissue emergence in constructs must enable both
biochemical and mechano transduction. Mechano
transduction through cell interaction produces two
different but concurrent signaling mechanisms: ligationinduced
signaling, which depends on biological stimuli
from the surrounding environment, and traction-induced
signaling, which depends on mechanical stimuli, [3].
Different substrate stiffness have contrasting effects on
migration and proliferation, where cells migrate faster
on softer substrates while proliferating preferentially on
the stiffer ones. This implicates that substrate rigidity is
a critical design parameter in the development of
scaffolds aimed at eliciting maximal cell and tissue
function. From mechanics it is known that the stiffness
of 3D porous structures scales with the relative density
of the porous material and thus the porosity, [4]. Hence,
stem cell lineage specifications can be controlled by
optimal selection of scaffold porosity. In this study we
investigate MSC mechano transduction in a hierarchical
scaffold having pore sizes from 50 nm to 0.3 mm using
finite element analysis of the fluid-structure interaction
occuring in a representative volume. Scaffold and MSC
morphology is reconstructed by X-Ray synchrotron
tomography.
Original languageEnglish
Publication year30 May 2011
Number of pages2
Publication statusPublished - 30 May 2011
Externally publishedYes

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