Thomas Kjær Christensen

Lead concentrations in blood from incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Standard

Lead concentrations in blood from incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea. / Lam, Su Shiung; McPartland, Molly; Noori, Brenley; Garbus, Svend Erik; Lierhagen, Syverin; Lyngs, Peter; Dietz, Rune; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Tjørnløv, Rune Skjold; Kanstrup, Niels; Fox, Anthony D.; Sørensen, Iben Hove; Arzel, Céline; Krøkje, Åse; Sonne, Christian.

In: Environment International, Vol. 137, 105582, 04.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Lam, SS, McPartland, M, Noori, B, Garbus, SE, Lierhagen, S, Lyngs, P, Dietz, R, Therkildsen, OR, Christensen, TK, Tjørnløv, RS, Kanstrup, N, Fox, AD, Sørensen, IH, Arzel, C, Krøkje, Å & Sonne, C 2020, 'Lead concentrations in blood from incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea', Environment International, vol. 137, 105582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105582

APA

Lam, S. S., McPartland, M., Noori, B., Garbus, S. E., Lierhagen, S., Lyngs, P., Dietz, R., Therkildsen, O. R., Christensen, T. K., Tjørnløv, R. S., Kanstrup, N., Fox, A. D., Sørensen, I. H., Arzel, C., Krøkje, Å., & Sonne, C. (2020). Lead concentrations in blood from incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea. Environment International, 137, [105582]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105582

CBE

Lam SS, McPartland M, Noori B, Garbus SE, Lierhagen S, Lyngs P, Dietz R, Therkildsen OR, Christensen TK, Tjørnløv RS, Kanstrup N, Fox AD, Sørensen IH, Arzel C, Krøkje Å, Sonne C. 2020. Lead concentrations in blood from incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea. Environment International. 137:Article 105582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105582

MLA

Vancouver

Lam SS, McPartland M, Noori B, Garbus SE, Lierhagen S, Lyngs P et al. Lead concentrations in blood from incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea. Environment International. 2020 Apr;137. 105582. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105582

Author

Lam, Su Shiung ; McPartland, Molly ; Noori, Brenley ; Garbus, Svend Erik ; Lierhagen, Syverin ; Lyngs, Peter ; Dietz, Rune ; Therkildsen, Ole Roland ; Christensen, Thomas Kjær ; Tjørnløv, Rune Skjold ; Kanstrup, Niels ; Fox, Anthony D. ; Sørensen, Iben Hove ; Arzel, Céline ; Krøkje, Åse ; Sonne, Christian. / Lead concentrations in blood from incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea. In: Environment International. 2020 ; Vol. 137.

Bibtex

@article{207240a7d4b94c94af1aadaf5ba7db0a,
title = "Lead concentrations in blood from incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea",
abstract = "Here we investigate if lead may be a contributing factor to the observed population decline in a Baltic colony of incubating eiders (Somateria mollissima). Body mass and blood samples were obtained from 50 incubating female eiders at the Baltic breeding colony on Christians{\o} during spring 2017 (n = 27) and 2018 (n = 23). All the females were sampled twice during early (day 4) and late (day 24) incubation. The full blood was analysed for lead to investigate if the concentrations exceeded toxic thresholds or changed over the incubation period due to remobilisation from bones and liver tissue. Body mass, hatch date and number of chicks were also analysed with respect to lead concentrations. The body mass (mean ± SD g) increased significantly in the order: day 24 in 2018 (1561 ± 154 g) < day 24 in 2017 (1618 ± 156 g) < day 4 in 2018 (2183 ± 140 g) < day 4 in 2017 (2359 ± 167 g) (all p < 0.001). The lead concentrations increased significantly in the opposite order i.e. day 4 in 2017 (41.7 ± 67.1 μg/L) < day 24 in 2017 (55.4 ± 66.8 μg/L) < day 4 in 2018 (177 ± 196 μg/L) < day 24 in 2018 (258 ± 243) (all p < 0.001). From day 4 to 24, the eider females had a 1.33-fold increase in blood lead concentrations in 2017 and a 1.46-fold increase in 2018. Three of the birds (13%) sampled in 2018 had lead concentrations that exceeded concentrations of clinical poisoning (500 μg/L) and eleven (48%) had concentrations that exceeded the threshold for subclinical poisoning (200 μg/L). In 2017, none of the birds exceeded the high toxic threshold of clinical poisoning while only one (4%) exceeded the lower threshold for subclinical poisoning. Three of the birds (6%) sampled in 2018 had lead concentrations that exceeded those of clinical poisoning while 12 birds (24%) resampled in both years exceeded the threshold for subclinical poisoning. In addition, lead concentrations and body mass on day 4 affected hatch date positively in 2018 (both p < 0.03) but not in 2017. These results show that bioavailable lead in bone and liver tissue pose a threat to the health of about 25% of the incubating eiders sampled. This is particularly critical because eiders are largely capital breeding which means that incubating eiders are in an energetically stressed state. The origin of lead in incubating eiders in the Christians{\o} colony is unknown and it remains an urgent priority to establish the source, prevalence and mechanism for uptake. The increase in lead from day 4 to day 24 is due to bone and liver remobilization; however, the additional lead source(s) on the breeding grounds needs to be identified. Continued investigations should determine the origin, uptake mechanisms and degree of exposure to lead for individual birds. Such research should include necropsies, x-ray, lead isotope and stable C and N isotope analyses to find the lead sources(s) in the course of the annual cycle and how it may affect the population dynamics of the Christians{\o} colony which reflects the ecology of the Baltic eiders being suitable for biomonitoring the overall flyway.",
keywords = "Avian, Emaciation, Food depletion, Parasite infection, Starvation, Waterfowl",
author = "Lam, {Su Shiung} and Molly McPartland and Brenley Noori and Garbus, {Svend Erik} and Syverin Lierhagen and Peter Lyngs and Rune Dietz and Therkildsen, {Ole Roland} and Christensen, {Thomas Kj{\ae}r} and Tj{\o}rnl{\o}v, {Rune Skjold} and Niels Kanstrup and Fox, {Anthony D.} and S{\o}rensen, {Iben Hove} and C{\'e}line Arzel and {\AA}se Kr{\o}kje and Christian Sonne",
year = "2020",
month = apr,
doi = "10.1016/j.envint.2020.105582",
language = "English",
volume = "137",
journal = "Environment International",
issn = "0160-4120",
publisher = "Pergamon Press",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Lead concentrations in blood from incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in the Baltic Sea

AU - Lam, Su Shiung

AU - McPartland, Molly

AU - Noori, Brenley

AU - Garbus, Svend Erik

AU - Lierhagen, Syverin

AU - Lyngs, Peter

AU - Dietz, Rune

AU - Therkildsen, Ole Roland

AU - Christensen, Thomas Kjær

AU - Tjørnløv, Rune Skjold

AU - Kanstrup, Niels

AU - Fox, Anthony D.

AU - Sørensen, Iben Hove

AU - Arzel, Céline

AU - Krøkje, Åse

AU - Sonne, Christian

PY - 2020/4

Y1 - 2020/4

N2 - Here we investigate if lead may be a contributing factor to the observed population decline in a Baltic colony of incubating eiders (Somateria mollissima). Body mass and blood samples were obtained from 50 incubating female eiders at the Baltic breeding colony on Christiansø during spring 2017 (n = 27) and 2018 (n = 23). All the females were sampled twice during early (day 4) and late (day 24) incubation. The full blood was analysed for lead to investigate if the concentrations exceeded toxic thresholds or changed over the incubation period due to remobilisation from bones and liver tissue. Body mass, hatch date and number of chicks were also analysed with respect to lead concentrations. The body mass (mean ± SD g) increased significantly in the order: day 24 in 2018 (1561 ± 154 g) < day 24 in 2017 (1618 ± 156 g) < day 4 in 2018 (2183 ± 140 g) < day 4 in 2017 (2359 ± 167 g) (all p < 0.001). The lead concentrations increased significantly in the opposite order i.e. day 4 in 2017 (41.7 ± 67.1 μg/L) < day 24 in 2017 (55.4 ± 66.8 μg/L) < day 4 in 2018 (177 ± 196 μg/L) < day 24 in 2018 (258 ± 243) (all p < 0.001). From day 4 to 24, the eider females had a 1.33-fold increase in blood lead concentrations in 2017 and a 1.46-fold increase in 2018. Three of the birds (13%) sampled in 2018 had lead concentrations that exceeded concentrations of clinical poisoning (500 μg/L) and eleven (48%) had concentrations that exceeded the threshold for subclinical poisoning (200 μg/L). In 2017, none of the birds exceeded the high toxic threshold of clinical poisoning while only one (4%) exceeded the lower threshold for subclinical poisoning. Three of the birds (6%) sampled in 2018 had lead concentrations that exceeded those of clinical poisoning while 12 birds (24%) resampled in both years exceeded the threshold for subclinical poisoning. In addition, lead concentrations and body mass on day 4 affected hatch date positively in 2018 (both p < 0.03) but not in 2017. These results show that bioavailable lead in bone and liver tissue pose a threat to the health of about 25% of the incubating eiders sampled. This is particularly critical because eiders are largely capital breeding which means that incubating eiders are in an energetically stressed state. The origin of lead in incubating eiders in the Christiansø colony is unknown and it remains an urgent priority to establish the source, prevalence and mechanism for uptake. The increase in lead from day 4 to day 24 is due to bone and liver remobilization; however, the additional lead source(s) on the breeding grounds needs to be identified. Continued investigations should determine the origin, uptake mechanisms and degree of exposure to lead for individual birds. Such research should include necropsies, x-ray, lead isotope and stable C and N isotope analyses to find the lead sources(s) in the course of the annual cycle and how it may affect the population dynamics of the Christiansø colony which reflects the ecology of the Baltic eiders being suitable for biomonitoring the overall flyway.

AB - Here we investigate if lead may be a contributing factor to the observed population decline in a Baltic colony of incubating eiders (Somateria mollissima). Body mass and blood samples were obtained from 50 incubating female eiders at the Baltic breeding colony on Christiansø during spring 2017 (n = 27) and 2018 (n = 23). All the females were sampled twice during early (day 4) and late (day 24) incubation. The full blood was analysed for lead to investigate if the concentrations exceeded toxic thresholds or changed over the incubation period due to remobilisation from bones and liver tissue. Body mass, hatch date and number of chicks were also analysed with respect to lead concentrations. The body mass (mean ± SD g) increased significantly in the order: day 24 in 2018 (1561 ± 154 g) < day 24 in 2017 (1618 ± 156 g) < day 4 in 2018 (2183 ± 140 g) < day 4 in 2017 (2359 ± 167 g) (all p < 0.001). The lead concentrations increased significantly in the opposite order i.e. day 4 in 2017 (41.7 ± 67.1 μg/L) < day 24 in 2017 (55.4 ± 66.8 μg/L) < day 4 in 2018 (177 ± 196 μg/L) < day 24 in 2018 (258 ± 243) (all p < 0.001). From day 4 to 24, the eider females had a 1.33-fold increase in blood lead concentrations in 2017 and a 1.46-fold increase in 2018. Three of the birds (13%) sampled in 2018 had lead concentrations that exceeded concentrations of clinical poisoning (500 μg/L) and eleven (48%) had concentrations that exceeded the threshold for subclinical poisoning (200 μg/L). In 2017, none of the birds exceeded the high toxic threshold of clinical poisoning while only one (4%) exceeded the lower threshold for subclinical poisoning. Three of the birds (6%) sampled in 2018 had lead concentrations that exceeded those of clinical poisoning while 12 birds (24%) resampled in both years exceeded the threshold for subclinical poisoning. In addition, lead concentrations and body mass on day 4 affected hatch date positively in 2018 (both p < 0.03) but not in 2017. These results show that bioavailable lead in bone and liver tissue pose a threat to the health of about 25% of the incubating eiders sampled. This is particularly critical because eiders are largely capital breeding which means that incubating eiders are in an energetically stressed state. The origin of lead in incubating eiders in the Christiansø colony is unknown and it remains an urgent priority to establish the source, prevalence and mechanism for uptake. The increase in lead from day 4 to day 24 is due to bone and liver remobilization; however, the additional lead source(s) on the breeding grounds needs to be identified. Continued investigations should determine the origin, uptake mechanisms and degree of exposure to lead for individual birds. Such research should include necropsies, x-ray, lead isotope and stable C and N isotope analyses to find the lead sources(s) in the course of the annual cycle and how it may affect the population dynamics of the Christiansø colony which reflects the ecology of the Baltic eiders being suitable for biomonitoring the overall flyway.

KW - Avian

KW - Emaciation

KW - Food depletion

KW - Parasite infection

KW - Starvation

KW - Waterfowl

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85079530805&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105582

DO - 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105582

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 32086081

AN - SCOPUS:85079530805

VL - 137

JO - Environment International

JF - Environment International

SN - 0160-4120

M1 - 105582

ER -