Department of Biology

Aarhus University Seal / Aarhus Universitets segl

Professor Peter Teglberg Madsen

Drivers of the dive response in pinnipeds; apnea, submergence or temperature?

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Standard

Drivers of the dive response in pinnipeds; apnea, submergence or temperature? / Kaczmarek, Jeppe; Reichmuth, Colleen; McDonald, Birgitte; Kristensen, Jakob H.; Larson, Josefin; Johansson, Fredrik; Sullivan, Jenna L.; Madsen, Peter T.

In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 221, No. 13, 07.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Kaczmarek, J, Reichmuth, C, McDonald, B, Kristensen, JH, Larson, J, Johansson, F, Sullivan, JL & Madsen, PT 2018, 'Drivers of the dive response in pinnipeds; apnea, submergence or temperature?', Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 221, no. 13. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.176545

APA

Kaczmarek, J., Reichmuth, C., McDonald, B., Kristensen, J. H., Larson, J., Johansson, F., Sullivan, J. L., & Madsen, P. T. (2018). Drivers of the dive response in pinnipeds; apnea, submergence or temperature? Journal of Experimental Biology, 221(13). https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.176545

CBE

Kaczmarek J, Reichmuth C, McDonald B, Kristensen JH, Larson J, Johansson F, Sullivan JL, Madsen PT. 2018. Drivers of the dive response in pinnipeds; apnea, submergence or temperature?. Journal of Experimental Biology. 221(13). https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.176545

MLA

Vancouver

Kaczmarek J, Reichmuth C, McDonald B, Kristensen JH, Larson J, Johansson F et al. Drivers of the dive response in pinnipeds; apnea, submergence or temperature? Journal of Experimental Biology. 2018 Jul;221(13). https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.176545

Author

Kaczmarek, Jeppe ; Reichmuth, Colleen ; McDonald, Birgitte ; Kristensen, Jakob H. ; Larson, Josefin ; Johansson, Fredrik ; Sullivan, Jenna L. ; Madsen, Peter T. / Drivers of the dive response in pinnipeds; apnea, submergence or temperature?. In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 2018 ; Vol. 221, No. 13.

Bibtex

@article{e5c61777b1fb40ecb510cdfb3aa2e6c4,
title = "Drivers of the dive response in pinnipeds; apnea, submergence or temperature?",
abstract = "Long and deep dives in marine mammals are enabled by high mass- specific oxygen stores and the dive response, which reduces oxygen consumption in concert with increased peripheral vasoconstriction and a lowered heart rate during dives. Diving heart rates of pinnipeds are highly variable and modulated by many factors, such as breath holding (apnea), pressure, swimming activity, temperature and even cognitive control. However, the individual effects of these factors on diving heart rate are poorly understood because of the difficulty of parsing their relative contributions in diving pinnipeds. Here, we examined the effects of apnea and external sensory inputs as autonomic drivers of bradycardia. Specifically, we hypothesized that (1) water stimulation of facial receptors would - as is the case for terrestrial mammals - enhance the dive response, (2) increasing the facial area stimulated would lead to a more intense bradycardia, and (3) cold water would elicit a more pronounced bradycardia than warm water. Three harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were trained to breath hold in air and with their heads submerged in a basin with variable water level and temperature. We show that bradycardia occurs during apnea without immersion. We also demonstrate that bradycardia is strengthened by both increasing the area of facial submersion and colder water. Thus, we conclude that the initiation of the dive response in pinnipeds is more strongly related to breath holding than in terrestrial mammals, but the degree of the dive response is potentiated autonomically via stimulation of facial mechano- and thermo-receptors upon submergence.",
keywords = "Bradycardia, Breath hold, Facial receptors, Heart rate, Harbor seal, California sea lion, HUMAN DIVING BRADYCARDIA, HEART-RATE, SEA LIONS, EXTREME BRADYCARDIA, TERRESTRIAL APNEAS, MARINE MAMMALS, CARDIAC-OUTPUT, WEDDELL SEALS, HARBOR SEALS, PATTERNS",
author = "Jeppe Kaczmarek and Colleen Reichmuth and Birgitte McDonald and Kristensen, {Jakob H.} and Josefin Larson and Fredrik Johansson and Sullivan, {Jenna L.} and Madsen, {Peter T.}",
year = "2018",
month = jul,
doi = "10.1242/jeb.176545",
language = "English",
volume = "221",
journal = "BRITISH JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY",
issn = "0022-0949",
publisher = "The/Company of Biologists Ltd.",
number = "13",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Drivers of the dive response in pinnipeds; apnea, submergence or temperature?

AU - Kaczmarek, Jeppe

AU - Reichmuth, Colleen

AU - McDonald, Birgitte

AU - Kristensen, Jakob H.

AU - Larson, Josefin

AU - Johansson, Fredrik

AU - Sullivan, Jenna L.

AU - Madsen, Peter T.

PY - 2018/7

Y1 - 2018/7

N2 - Long and deep dives in marine mammals are enabled by high mass- specific oxygen stores and the dive response, which reduces oxygen consumption in concert with increased peripheral vasoconstriction and a lowered heart rate during dives. Diving heart rates of pinnipeds are highly variable and modulated by many factors, such as breath holding (apnea), pressure, swimming activity, temperature and even cognitive control. However, the individual effects of these factors on diving heart rate are poorly understood because of the difficulty of parsing their relative contributions in diving pinnipeds. Here, we examined the effects of apnea and external sensory inputs as autonomic drivers of bradycardia. Specifically, we hypothesized that (1) water stimulation of facial receptors would - as is the case for terrestrial mammals - enhance the dive response, (2) increasing the facial area stimulated would lead to a more intense bradycardia, and (3) cold water would elicit a more pronounced bradycardia than warm water. Three harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were trained to breath hold in air and with their heads submerged in a basin with variable water level and temperature. We show that bradycardia occurs during apnea without immersion. We also demonstrate that bradycardia is strengthened by both increasing the area of facial submersion and colder water. Thus, we conclude that the initiation of the dive response in pinnipeds is more strongly related to breath holding than in terrestrial mammals, but the degree of the dive response is potentiated autonomically via stimulation of facial mechano- and thermo-receptors upon submergence.

AB - Long and deep dives in marine mammals are enabled by high mass- specific oxygen stores and the dive response, which reduces oxygen consumption in concert with increased peripheral vasoconstriction and a lowered heart rate during dives. Diving heart rates of pinnipeds are highly variable and modulated by many factors, such as breath holding (apnea), pressure, swimming activity, temperature and even cognitive control. However, the individual effects of these factors on diving heart rate are poorly understood because of the difficulty of parsing their relative contributions in diving pinnipeds. Here, we examined the effects of apnea and external sensory inputs as autonomic drivers of bradycardia. Specifically, we hypothesized that (1) water stimulation of facial receptors would - as is the case for terrestrial mammals - enhance the dive response, (2) increasing the facial area stimulated would lead to a more intense bradycardia, and (3) cold water would elicit a more pronounced bradycardia than warm water. Three harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) were trained to breath hold in air and with their heads submerged in a basin with variable water level and temperature. We show that bradycardia occurs during apnea without immersion. We also demonstrate that bradycardia is strengthened by both increasing the area of facial submersion and colder water. Thus, we conclude that the initiation of the dive response in pinnipeds is more strongly related to breath holding than in terrestrial mammals, but the degree of the dive response is potentiated autonomically via stimulation of facial mechano- and thermo-receptors upon submergence.

KW - Bradycardia

KW - Breath hold

KW - Facial receptors

KW - Heart rate

KW - Harbor seal

KW - California sea lion

KW - HUMAN DIVING BRADYCARDIA

KW - HEART-RATE

KW - SEA LIONS

KW - EXTREME BRADYCARDIA

KW - TERRESTRIAL APNEAS

KW - MARINE MAMMALS

KW - CARDIAC-OUTPUT

KW - WEDDELL SEALS

KW - HARBOR SEALS

KW - PATTERNS

U2 - 10.1242/jeb.176545

DO - 10.1242/jeb.176545

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 29773686

VL - 221

JO - BRITISH JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY

JF - BRITISH JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY

SN - 0022-0949

IS - 13

ER -