Department of Psychology and Behavioural Sciences

Peter Krøjgaard


Curriculum Vitae

Born in 1966

1988: student of engineering

1996: MSc in psychology

1998: visiting researcher at the University of Oslo

1999: PhD in psychology, University of Aarhus

1999: research assistant, University of Aarhus

2000: assistant professor [adjunkt] in developmental psychology, University of Aarhus

2002: associate professor [lektor] in developmental psychology, University of Aarhus

2009: professor in developmental psychology, Aarhus University


Research interests:

I am generally interesting in infant cognition. Until recently, I have primarily been interested in infants' understanding of the physical world and concept formation. In particular I have done experimentally based work on object individuation, that is, the ability to decide the number of distinct objects present in a given scenario.

The Center on Autobiographical Memory Research was launched on the 1st of January 2010. The center is financed by the Danish National Research Foundation, and lead by Prof. Dorthe Berntsen, and I work as a core member at the center. I the years to come I will mainly conduct experimentally based research on the development of event or episodic memory, that may be seen as pre-cursers for autobiographical memory proper in older children and adults. I am especially interested in issues related to event segmentation in infants, their ability to remember events (by means of deferred and elicited imitation), and the paradox of childhood amnesia.


Grants (Principal Investigator):




AUFF E-1999-SAM-1-83       


8,736 EUR

AUFF F-2001-SAM-1-21


2,120 EUR

AUFF E-2002-SAM-1-66


933 EUR

FKK 273-05--0182


279,580 EUR



3,333 EUR

FKK 273-07-0009 22-06-2007

  30,720 EUR

AUFF (PhD Course)01-07-2010  2,666 EUR
VELUX FONDEN01-01-2016791,342 EUR


Grants (Co-investigator): 

 No. Date:


 DG: ConAmore (PI: Dorthe Berntsen) 06-02-2009

 5,600,000 EUR

 AUFF (PhD Course)16-06-2009 

 7,333 EUR



Perceptual development; cognitive development; emotions, temperament, and attachment; social cognition; research methodology. 



  • Rune Nørager, awarded PhD degree on the 16th of June 2009 
  • Osman S. Kingo, awarded PhD degree on the 22nd of February 2010. Osman S. Kingo was awarded the prize for the best PhD thesis in 2010 from the faculty of Business and Social Science by The Aarhus University Research Foundation. 
  • Søren Risløv Staugaard, awarded PhD degree on the 18th of June 2010.
  • Jonna Jelsbak Dahl, awarded PhD degree on the 16th of April 2015.
  • Cecilia Brynskov, awarded PhD degree on the 20th of May 2016
  • Tina Jeppesen [as co-supevisor] (1/10-2010-
  • Trine Sonne, awarded PhD degree on the 17th of March 2016.
  • Toril Sveistrup Jensen (1st of September 2015-
  • Riikka Paulina Svane (1st of September 2016-
  • Tirill Fjellhaugen Hjuler (1st og April 2017-


PhD-assessment committees:

  • Yvonne Thomson, awarded PhD-degree on the 1st of October, 2004 (chairman of committee) 
  • Jill Byrnitt, awarded PhD-degree on the 14th of October, 2005 (chairman of committee)
  • Vanessa, Leanette Ragans, awarded PhD-degree on the 26th of October 2007
  • Annette Bohn, awarded PhD-degree on the 23rd. of October 2008 (chairman of committee)
  • Mette Elmose Eriksen, awarded PhD-degree on the 29th of April 2011 (chairman of committee)


Appointment committees:

  • Post-doc [amanuensisstilling] in Cognition and Learning by University of Aarhus; assessment ended January 2003.
  • Assistant professor in Cognition and Learning, University of Aarhus; assessment ended January 2006 (chairman).
  • Associate professor i Language acquisition, University of Southern Denmark; assessment ended September 2006.
  • Post Doc scholarships at Dep. of Psychology, University of Aarhus, assessent ended 15th of June 2007 (chairman).
  • Associate professor in Developmental Psychology, Roskilde University Centre, assessment ended September 26th, 2007.
  • Associate professor in Cognition and Learning; Aarhus University; assessment ended January the 28th, 2009 (chairman).
  • Assistant professor in Cognition and Learning, Aarhus University, assessment ended 15th of June 2009 (chairman).
  • Postdoc position in Developmental Psychology at ConAmore, Department of Psychology, and MindLab, Aarhus University; assessment ended 1st of June 2010 (chairman).
  • Postdoc position in Autobiographical Memory at Con Amore, Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Aarhus University; assessment ended 22nd of February 2012 (chairman).
  • Adjunct Assoc. Professorship, April 2014
  • Assoc. Professorhship in Autobiographical Memory Research, February 2014
  • Research Assistant at Con Amore, February 2014
  • Research Assistant at Con Amore, April 2014
  • Research Assistant at Con Amore, November 2015
  • Postdoc positions at Con Amore, July 2016
  • Research Assistant at Con Amore, November 2016
  • Research Assistant at Con Amore, March 2017
  • Professorship (USA), september 2017
  • Adjunct Professorship, SDU, May 2018
  • Postdoc assessment, Con Amore, June 2018



  • NSF - The National Science Foundation (USA).
  • Reviewer for Applied Cognitive Psychology
  • Reviewer for Cognition
  • Reviewer for Cognitive Development
  • Reviewer for Consciousness & Cogniion
  • Reviewer for Journal of Consciousness Studies
  • Reviewer forJournal of Experimental Child Psychology
  • Reviewer for Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 
  • Reviewer for Journal of Anthropological Psychology
  • Reviewer for Infant and Child Development
  • Reviewer for Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
  • Reviewer for Memory
  • Reviewer for Nordic Psychology
  • Reviewer for PLOS ONE
  • Reviewer for Psychological Research
  • Reviewer for Psyke & Logos
  • Member of the editing board of the Danish Forskningsnyt fra Psykologien [Research news from psychology]
  • Ad hoc reviewer: Hans Reitzels Forlag [a Danish Publisher],
  • Ad hoc reviewer: Systime [a Danish publisher]
  • Ad hoc reviewer: Aarhus Universitets Forlag [a Danish publisher]  


Other relevant activities:

  • Vice head of research facilitation and talent development
  • Head of the PhD board of Psychology
  • Member of the the Steering Commiitte of the basic research center Center on Autobiographical Memory Research (Con Amore)
  • Member of Professional Forum (purpose: to ensure the quality of the subject  Psychology in Danish high schools) 
  • Member of the research unit AGHOK (Applied Research in Memory and Cognition)
  • Former member of the governing board of the Danish Research School of Psychology
  • Former member of the Library board
  • Former chairman of the Lab-board
  • Former member of The Strategic Council
  • Former member of the Staff-Student Committee



Journal Articles:

Krøjgaard, P. (1995). Dannelsen af barnets indre univers. - Om forholdet mellem psykoanalytisk udviklingsteori og udviklingspsykologi [The emergence of the child’s inner universe: On the relationship between psychoanalytic developmental theory and developmental psychology]. Nordisk Psykologi, 47, 161-181.

Krøjgaard, P. (1998a). Forskningen vedrørende objektpermanens: Et review af de undersøgelser, der anvender velkendte objekter [Research on objects permanence: A review of the studies using familiar objects]. Nordisk Psykologi, 50, 258-279.

Krøjgaard, P (1998b). Er bamsen den samme som den, jeg så før? En kritisk evaluering af Meltzoff & Moores identitetsteori, samt de seneste undersøgelser [Is the teddy bear the same as the one I saw before? A critical evaluation of Meltzoff & Moore’s identity theory, and the most recent studies]. Psyke & Logos, 19, 359-386.

Krøjgaard, P. (1999a). Spædbarnets erkendelse af objekters numeriske identitet, I: Problemstillingens relevans og en gennemgang af nogle centrale visual tracking studier [Infant’s cognition of object’s numerical identity I: Relevance of the issue, and a review of the central visual tracking studies]. Nordisk Psykologi, 51, 1-15.

Krøjgaard, P. (1999b). Spædbarnets erkendelse af objekters numeriske identitet, II: E.S. Spelkes forskning, et uløst problem og perspektiver [Infant’s cognition of object’s numerical identity II: The research by E.S. Spelke, an unresolved problem and perspectives]. Nordisk Psykologi, 51, 81-97.

Krøjgaard, P. (2000). Object individuation in 10-month-old infants: Do significant objects make a difference? Cognitive Development, 15, 169-184.

Krøjgaard, P. (2001). Økologisk validitet og eksperimentel spædbarnsforskning [Ecological validity and experimental infant research]. Psyke & Logos, 22, 635-661.

Krøjgaard, P. (2003). Object individuation in 10-month-old infants: Manipulating the amount of introduction. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21, 447-463.

Krøjgaard, P. (2004). A review of object individuation in infancy. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 22, 159-183.

Krøjgaard, P. (2005). Infants’ search for hidden persons. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29, 70-79.

Krøjgaard, P. (2005). Spædbarnsforskningens relevans for almenpsykologien [The releveance of infant research in relation to general psychology. (Target article with open peer commentaries)]. Bulletin fra Antropologisk Psykologi, 15, 2-27.

Krøjgaard, P. (2005). Teori og empiri: Replik til kommentarerne [Theory and research: A reply to the commentaries]. Bulletin fra Forum for Antropologisk Psykologi, 15, 101-128.

Krøjgaard, P. (2005). Kontinuitet og diskontinuitet i udviklingspsykologien [Continuity and discontinuity in developmental psychology]. Psyke & Logos, 26, 377-394.

Krøjgaard, P. (2006). Barnets intentionalitetsforståelse som udviklings-psykologisk forudsætning for social ansvarlighed [The child’s understanding of intentions as a developmental prerequisite for social responsibility]. Psyke & Logos, 27, 662-680.

Krøjgaard, P. (2007). Comparing infants’ use of featural and spatio-temporal information in an object individuation task using a new event-monitoring design. Developmental Science, 10, 892-909.

Krøjgaard, P., & Kingo, O.S. (2008). Metodiske overvejelser i forbindelse med undersøgelse af spædbørns kognitive udvikling: Anvendelse af computerdisplays og eye trackere. [Methodological concerns related to infant cognition research: the use of computer displays and eye tracking.] Psyke & Logos, 29, 488-498.

Krøjgaard, P. (2009a). A direct comparison of infants’ use of featural and spatiotemporal information when individuating objects in a non-occlusion event monitoring design. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 6, 641-665.

Kingo, O.S., & Krøjgaard, P. (2011). Object manipulation facilitates kind-based object individuation of shape-similar objects. Cognitive Development, 26, 87-103.

Kingo, O. S., & Krøjgaard, P. (2012). Object function facilitates infants’ object individuation in a manual search task. Journal of Cognition and Development, 13, 152-173.

Kingo, O. S., & Krøjgaard, P. (2013). Eighteen-month-old infants generalize to analogue props across a two weeks retention interval in an elicited imitation paradigm. Child Development Research, 2013, 1-11.

Kingo, O.S., Bohn, A., & Krøjgaard, P. (2013). Warm-up questions on early childhood memories affect the reported age of earliest memories in late adolescence. Memory, 21, 280-284.

Dahl, J. J., Sonne, T., Kingo, O. S., & Krøjgaard, P. (2013). On the Development of Episodic Memory: Two Basic Questions. Nordic Psychology, 62, 189-207.

Krøjgaard, P., & Berntsen, D. (2013). Editorial: An introduction to the Special Issue on Autobiographical Memory. Nordic Psychology, 62, 81-86.

Krøjgaard, P., Kingo, O.S., Staugaard, S.R. (2013). Object individuation or object movement as attractor? A replication of the wide-screen/narrow-screen study by means of (a) standard looking time methodology, and (b) eye tracking. Child Development Research, 2013, 1-14.

Kingo, O.S, Berntsen, D., & Krøjgaard P. (2013). Adults’ Earliest Memories as a Function of Age, Gender, and Education in a Large Stratified Sample. Psychology and Aging, 28, 646-653.

Kingo, O.S., Staugaard, S.R., & Krøjgaard, P. (2014). Three-year-olds’ memory for a person met only once at the age of 12 months: Very long-term memory revealed by a late-manifesting novelty preference. Consciousness and Cognition, 24, 49-56.

Krøjgaard, P., Kingo, O.S., Dahl, J.J., & Berntsen, D. (2014). “That one makes things small": Experimentally induced spontaneous memories in 3.5-year-olds. Consciousness and Cognition, 30, 24-35.

Kingo, O.S., & Krøjgaard, P. (2015). Eighteen-month-olds’ memory for short movies of simple stories. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 56, 151-156.

Dahl, J.J., Kingo, O.S., & Krøjgaard, P. (2015). The Magic Shrinking Machine revisited: The  presence of props at recall facilitates memory in 3-year-olds. Developmental Psychology, 51, 1704-1716.

Sonne, T., Kingo, O.S., & Krøjgaard, P. (2016). Occlusions at event boundaries during encoding have a negative effect on infant memory. Consciousness & Cognition, 41, 72-82.

Krøjgaard, P. (2016). Keeping track of individuals: Insights from developmental psychology. Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 50, 264-276.

Brynskov, C., Krøjgaard, P. Eigsti, I-M. (2016). Language and communication in children with autism: Do research and clinical practice converge? Nordic Psychology, 68, 100-113.

Dahl, J.J., Kingo, O.S., & Krøjgaard, P. (2016). Twenty-four-month-olds' nonverbal memory for expected and unexpected versions of familiar events. Cognitive Development, 39, 168-180.

Sonne, T., Kingo, O.S., & Krøjgaard, P. (2016). Empty looks or paying attention? Exploring infants’ visual behavior during encoding of an elicited imitation task. Infancy, 21, 728-750.

Krøjgaard, P. (2017). On the Theorem of Correspondence. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 51, 29-38.

Sonne, T., Kingo, O.S., & Krøjgaard, P. (2017). Bound to remember: Infants show superior memory for objects presented at event boundaries. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 58, 107-113.

Brynskov, C., Eigsti, I-M, Jørgensen, M., Lemcke, S., Bohn, O-S, & Krøjgaard, P. (2017). Syntax and morphology in Danish-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47, 373-383. 

Krøjgaard, P., Kingo, O.S., & Berntsen, D. (2017). Adults’ earliest memories of songs and melodies based on a large stratified sample. Memory Studies, 10, 210-226. 

Partanen, E., Leminen, A., de Paoli, S., Bundgaard, A., Kingo, O.S., Krøjgaard, P., & Shtyrov, Y. (2017). Flexible, rapid and automatic neocortical word form acquisition mechanism in children as revealed by neuromagnetic brain response dynamics. NeuroImage, 155. 450-459.

Krøjgaard, P., Kingo, O.S., Jensen, T.S., & Berntsen, D. (2017). By-passing strategic retrieval: Experimentally induced spontaneous episodic memories in 35- and 46-month-old children. Consciousness & Cognition, 55, 91-105. 

Sonne, T., Kingo, O. S., & Krøjgaard, P. (2018). Meaningful memory? Eighteen-month-olds only remember cartoons with a meaningful storyline. Frontiers in Psychology, 9:2388.

Sonne, T., Kingo, O.S., Berntsen, D., & Krøjgaard, P. (2019). Thirty-five-month-old children have spontaneous memories despite change of context for retrieval. Memory, 27, 38-48. 

Bauer, P. J., Baker-Ward, L. Krøjgaard, P., Peterson, C., & Wang, Q. (2019). Evidence against depiction as fiction: A comment on “Fictional First Memories”. Psychological Science, 30, 1397-1399.

Krøjgaard, P., Sonne, T., Lerebourg, M., Lambek, R., & Kingo, O. S (2019). Eight-year-olds, but not six-year-olds, perform just as well as adults when playing Concentration: Resolving the enigma? Consciousness & Cognition, 69, 81-94.


Sonne, T., Kingo, O. S., Berntsen, D., & Krøjgaard, P. (in press). Noting a difference: Change in social context prompts spontaneous recall in 46-month-olds, but not in 35.-month-olds. Psychological Research.

Van der Kaap-Deeder, J., Soenens, B., Mouratidis, A., De Pauw, S., Krøjgaard, P., & Vansteenkiste, M. (in press). Towards a detailed understanding of preschool children’s memory-related functioning and emotion regulation: The role of parents’ observed reminiscence style, memory valence, and parental gender. Developmental Psychology.    

Sonne, T., Kingo, O. S., Berntsen, D., & Krøjgaard, P. (in press). Age affects strategic but not spontaneous recall in 35- and 46-month-old children. Journal of Cognition and Development.



Book Chapters:

Krøjgaard, P. (2002). ”Jeg ved, hvad du vil!” Om udviklingen af barnets forståelse af sig selv og andre mennesker som intentionelle væsener [’I know, what you want!’ On the development of the child’s understanding of self and other as intentional agents]. I M. Hermansen & A. Poulsen (Eds.), Samfundets børn (pp. 129-161). Århus: Forlaget Klim.

Krøjgaard, P. (2006). Object individuation in eight-month-old infants: A comparison of novel and familiar objects. In M.A. Vanshevsky (Ed.), Focus on Cognitive Psychology Research (pp. 85-100). New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Krøjgaard, P. (2009). The human ability to single out and track specific objects trough space and time: Origin and application. In H. Høgh-Olesen, P. Bertelsen & J. Tønnesvang (Eds.), Human characteristics: Evolutionary perspectives on human mind and kind (pp. 89-116). Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Kingo, O. S., & Krøjgaard, P. (2009). Object function as a basic requirement for language use and tool use. In H. Høgh-Olesen, J. Tønnesvang & P. Bertelsen (Eds.), Human characteristics - evolutionary perspectives on human mind and kind (pp. 65-88). UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Krøjgaard, P. (2011). "Jeg ved, hvad du tror!": Theory of Mind feltets fødsel. I: H. Høgh-Olesen & T. Dalsgaard (Ed.), 20 eksperimenter der forandrede psykologien. ["I know what you believe!": The birth of Theory of Mind. In H. Høgh-Olsen, & T. Dalsgaard, (Eds.), 20 experiments that changed psychology.] Aarhus: PluraFutura.

Krøjgaard, P. (2011). Spædbarnet. I B. Karpatchof & B. Katzenelson (Eds.), Klassisk og moderne psykologisk teori. 2. udg. (pp. 519-540). København: Hans Reitzels Forlag. [The infant. In Karpatchof & B. Katzenelson (Eds.), Classical and modern psychological theory. 2nd edition (pp. 519-540). København: Hans Reitzels Forlag.


Sonne, T., Kingo, O. S., Berntsen, D., & Krøjgaard, P. (2020). Thirty-five-month-old children have spontaneous memories despite change of context for retrieval. In Q. Wang & S. Gülgöz (Eds.), Remembering and forgetting early childhood (pp. 38-48). London & New York: Routledge. Book chapter reprinted from Memory (vol. 27), Special Issue.


Krøjgaard, P., Sonne, T., & Kingo, O. S. (in press). Is the eye the mirror of the soul? Exploring autobiographical memory development by means of looking-time measures. In: S. Gülgöz, & B. Sahin-Acar (Eds.) Autobiographical Memory Development: Theoretical and Methodological Approaches. Routledge.