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Peter Kappel Theil

Optimal lysine in diets for high-yielding lactating sows

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The objective of the current study was to determine the optimal concentration of dietary standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys required to maximize litter gain and minimize sow BW loss in modern high-yielding lactating sows when SID CP was kept constant across dietary treatments. A total of 396 parity 1 to 5 sows (L × Y, DanBred, Herlev, Denmark) were included in the study from day 3 after farrowing until weaning at day 26. Sows were allocated to 6 dietary treatments increasing in SID Lys concentration (6.19, 6.90, 7.63, 8.33, 9.04, and 9.76 g/kg). Diets were isoenergetic (14.04 MJ ME/kg as-fed). Litters were standardized to 14 piglets at day 3 ± 2 d postpartum. At day 3 ± 2 d and at day 26 ± 3 d in lactation, litter weight, and sow BW and back fat were registered. On a subsample of 72 parity 2 to 4 sows, litters were additionally weighed at days 10 and 17 ± 3 d, and milk and blood were sampled at day 3 ± 2 d, and 10, 17 and at 24 ± 3 d in lactation. For the 72 sows, body pools of fat and protein were also determined at days 3 ± 2 and 26 ± 3 d using the D2O dilution technique. All data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design using PROC MIXED in SAS. Furthermore, data were subjected to linear and quadratic polynomial contrasts. Variables with quadratic or linear effects or days in milk × treatment interactions were selected for analysis in PROC NLMIXED using linear broken-line models to evaluate optimal SID Lys concentrations. Only models that converged and the best fitting models were included. Average daily litter gain increased until a breakpoint at 8.11 g/kg of SID Lys (as-fed). At and above the breakpoint, multiparous and primiparous sows had litter gains of 3.36 and 2.93 kg/d, respectively. Weaning litter size (13.0 ± 0.1) was similar between the 6 dietary treatments (P = 0.28). Lactation sow BW loss was minimized to 0.17 kg/d at 9.05 g/kg of SID Lys and sow body protein loss was minimized to 0.23 kg at 9.22 g/kg of SID Lys. Linear broken-line analyses showed that for 3, 10, 17, and 24 DIM, plasma urea was minimized at 7.02, 8.10, 8.73, and 8.32 g/kg of SID Lys, respectively, and milk fat was maximized at 7.80 g/kg of SID Lys. In conclusion, in our conditions, high-yielding lactating sows required 8.11 g/kg of SID Lys to maximize litter gain and 9.05 g/kg of SID Lys to minimize sow BW loss. Based on plasma urea, the optimal dietary concentration of SID Lys was lowest in week 1, intermediate in week 2 and 4, and greatest in week 3 of lactation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Animal Science
Pages (from-to)4268-4281
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 2019

    Research areas

  • amino acid, blood metabolite, hyper-prolific sow, litter growth, milk composition, milk yield

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