Mads Brix Kronborg

Rate of device-related infections using an antibacterial envelope in patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy reoperations

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review


AIMS : Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reoperations are associated with a particularly high risk of device-related infection (DRI). An antibacterial envelope reduces the occurrence of DRIs in a broad population of moderate-tohigh-risk patients. To investigate the efficacy of an antibacterial envelope in a very high-risk population of patients undergoing CRT reoperation.

METHODS AND RESULTS: In this Danish two-centre, observational cohort study, we included consecutive patients who underwent a CRT pacemaker- or defibrillator reoperation procedure between January 2008 and November 2019. We obtained data from the Danish Pacemaker and ICD Register and through systematic medical chart review. Follow-up was restricted to 2 years. A total of 1943 patients were included in the study of which 736 (38%) received an envelope. Envelope patients had more independent risk factors for infection than non-envelope patients. Sixty-seven (3.4%) patients met the primary endpoint of DRI requiring device system extraction; 50 in the non-envelope group and 17 in the envelope group [4.1% vs. 2.3%, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.90; P = 0.021]. This difference persisted in propensity score analysis (HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.29-0.90; P = 0.019).

CONCLUSION : Use of an antibacterial envelope was associated with a clinically and statistically significant reduction in DRIs in patients undergoing CRT reoperations. Our results were comparable to those recently reported from a large randomized controlled trial, which is suggestive of a proportional effect of the envelope even in very high-risk patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)421-429
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email:

    Research areas

  • Antibacterial envelope, Antibiotic prophylaxis, Cardiac implantable electronic device, Cardiac resynchronization therapy, Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, Infection, Pacemaker, Reoperation

See relations at Aarhus University Citationformats

ID: 221806652