Lars Jørgen Østergaard

Persistence and 4-year boosting of the bactericidal response elicited by two- and three-dose schedules of MenB-FHbp: A phase 3 extension study in adolescents

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  • Timo Vesikari, Tampere University Hospital Medical School
  • ,
  • Lars Østergaard
  • Johannes Beeslaar, Pfizer
  • ,
  • Judith Absalon, Pfizer
  • ,
  • Joseph J. Eiden, Pfizer
  • ,
  • Kathrin U. Jansen, Pfizer
  • ,
  • Thomas R. Jones, Pfizer
  • ,
  • Shannon L. Harris, Pfizer
  • ,
  • Roger Maansson, Pfizer
  • ,
  • Samantha Munson, Pfizer
  • ,
  • Robert E. O'Neill, Pfizer
  • ,
  • Laura J. York, Pfizer
  • ,
  • John L. Perez, Pfizer

Background: The period of heightened risk of invasive meningococcal disease in adolescence extends for >10 years. This study aimed to evaluate persistence of the immune response to the serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine MenB-FHbp (Trumenba ® , Bivalent rLP2086) under two- and three-dose primary vaccination schedules, both of which are approved in the United States and the European Union, and to assess safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose. Methods: This was an open-label extension study of a phase 2 randomized MenB-FHbp study (primary study). This interim analysis includes data through 1 month after booster vaccination. In the primary study, adolescents 11–18 years of age were randomized using an interactive voice or web-based response system to receive 120 μg MenB-FHbp under 0-, 1-, 6-month; 0-, 2-, 6-month; 0-, 6-month; 0-, 2-month; or 0-, 4-month schedules (termed study groups for the current analysis). For the primary study, participants were blinded to their vaccine study group allocation, but investigators and the study sponsor were unblinded. Immune responses in subjects from the primary study were evaluated through 48 months after primary vaccination (persistence stage; 17 sites in Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, and Sweden). Safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose given at 48 months after primary vaccination (booster stage; 14 sites in Czech Republic, Denmark, and Sweden) were also assessed. Immune responses were evaluated in serum bactericidal assays with human complement (hSBAs) using four MenB test strains representative of disease-causing MenB strains in the United States and Europe and expressing factor H binding proteins (FHbps) heterologous to the vaccine antigens. The primary immunogenicity endpoints were the proportions of subjects with hSBA titers greater than or equal to the assays’ lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ; 1:8 or 1:16 depending on strain) at 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months after primary vaccination (persistence stage) and 1 and 48 months after the primary vaccination series and 1 month after receipt of the booster dose (booster stage). Safety evaluations during the booster stage included local reactions and systemic events by severity, antipyretic use, adverse events (AEs), immediate AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), medically attended AEs (MAEs), newly diagnosed chronic medical conditions (NDCMCs), and missed days of school and work because of AEs. The modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population was used for immunogenicity evaluations in the persistence stage. The booster stage immunogenicity evaluations used the evaluable immunogenicity population; analyses were also performed in the mITT population. For the persistence stage, safety evaluations included subjects with at least one blood draw, whereas for the booster stage, they included subjects who received the booster dose and had available safety data. This trial is registered at number NCT01543087. Findings: A total of 465 subjects were enrolled in the persistence stage, and 271 subjects were enrolled in the booster stage. Sera for the extension phase of this interim analysis were collected from September 7, 2012 to December 7, 2015. One month after primary vaccination, 73.8–100.0% of subjects depending on study group responded with hSBA titers ≥LLOQ. Response rates declined during the 12 months after last primary vaccination and then remained stable through 48 months, with 18.0–61.3% of subjects depending on study group having hSBA titers ≥LLOQ at this time point. One month after receipt of the booster dose, 91.9–100.0% of subjects depending on study group had hSBA titers ≥LLOQ against the four primary strains individually and 91.8–98.2% had hSBA titers ≥LLOQ against all four strains combined (composite response). Geometric mean titers were higher after booster vaccination than at 1 month after primary vaccination. Immune responses were generally similar across study groups, regardless of whether a two- or three-dose primary series was received. None of the AEs (2.2–6.9% of subjects depending on study group) or NDCMCs (1.8–5.0%) that were reported during the persistence stage were considered related to the investigational product. Local reactions and systemic events were reported by 84.4–93.8% and 68.8–76.6% of subjects depending on study group, respectively, in the booster stage; these were generally similar across study groups, transient, and less frequent than after any primary vaccination. Additionally, there was no general progressive worsening in severity of reactogenicity events (ie, potentiation; ≤3 subjects per group), and reactogenicity events did not lead to any study withdrawals. No NDCMCs or immediate AEs were reported during the booster stage. AEs were reported by 3.7–12.5% of subjects depending on study group during the booster stage. The two possibly related AEs included a mild worsening of psoriasis and a severe influenza-like illness that resolved in 10 days. Interpretation: Immune responses declined after the primary vaccination series; however, a substantially greater number of subjects retained protective responses at 48 months after primary vaccination compared with subjects having protective responses before vaccination. Persistence trends were similar across all 5 study groups regardless of whether a two- or three-dose primary schedule was received. Furthermore, a booster dose given 48 months after primary vaccination was safe, well-tolerated, and elicited robust immune responses indicative of immunologic memory; these responses were similar between two- and three-dose primary schedule study groups. Use of a booster dose may help further extend protection against MenB disease in adolescents. Funding: Pfizer Inc.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1710-1719
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019

    Research areas

  • Adolescents, Booster, Meningococcal disease, Persistence, Serogroup B, Vaccine

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