Lars Jørgen Østergaard

Effect of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis on the incidence of malaria in HIV-infected children in 2012, in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: a prospective cohort study

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  • Aïda Mounkaila Harouna
  • ,
  • Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet
  • ,
  • François Tanoh Eboua
  • ,
  • Sophie Desmonde
  • ,
  • Sylvie N'Gbeche
  • ,
  • Edmond Addi Aka
  • ,
  • Kouakou Kouadio
  • ,
  • Brou Kouacou, Denmark
  • Karen Malateste
  • ,
  • Clarisse Bosse-Amani
  • ,
  • Patrick Ahuatchi Coffie
  • ,
  • Valeriane Leroy
  • ,
  • IeDEA paediatric West African Study Group (Lars Østergaard, Alex Lund Laursen, Christian Wejse, Christian Erikstrup; members)

BACKGROUND: Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis has an antimalarial effect which could have an additional protective effect against malaria in HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We measured the incidence and associated factors of malaria in HIV-infected children on ART and/or cotrimoxazole in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

METHODS: All HIV-infected children <16 years, followed-up in the IeDEA West-African paediatric cohort (pWADA) in Abidjan, were prospectively included from May to August 2012, the rainy season. Children presenting signs suggesting malaria had a thick blood smear and were classified as confirmed or probable malaria. We calculated incidence density rates (IR) per 100 child-years (CY). Risk factors were assessed using a Poisson regression model.

RESULTS: Overall, 1117 children were included, of whom 89 % were ART-treated and 67 % received cotrimoxazole. Overall, there were 51 malaria events occurring in 48 children: 28 confirmed and 23 probable; 94 % were uncomplicated malaria. The overall IR of malaria (confirmed and probable) was 18.3/100 CY (95 % CI: 13.3-23.4), varying from 4.2/100 CY (95 % CI: 1.1-7.3) in children on ART and cotrimoxazole to 57.3/100 CY (95 % CI: 7.1-107.6) for those receiving no treatment at all. In univariate analysis, age < 5 years was significantly associated with a 2-fold IR of malaria compared to age >10 years (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 2.18, 95 % CI: 1.04-4.58). Adjusted for severe immunodeficiency, cotrimoxazole reduced significantly the IR of first malarial episode (adjusted IRR [aIRR] = 0.13, 95 % CI: 0.02-0.69 and aIRR = 0.05, 95 % CI:0.02-0.18 in those off and on ART respectively). Severe immunodeficiency increased significantly the malaria IR (aIRR = 4.03, 95 % CI: 1.55-10.47). When considering the IR of confirmed malaria only, this varied from 2.4/100 CY (95 % CI: 0.0-4.8) in children on ART and cotrimoxazole to 34.4/100 CY (95 % CI: 0.0-73.3) for those receiving no treatment at all. In adjusted analyses, the IR of malaria in children on both cotrimoxazole and ART was significantly reduced (aIRR = 0.05, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.24) compared to those receiving no treatment at all.

CONCLUSIONS: Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis was strongly protective against the incidence of malaria when associated with ART in HIV-infected children. Thus, these drugs should be provided as widely and durably as possible in all HIV-infected children <5 years of age.

Original languageEnglish
JournalB M C Infectious Diseases
Volume15
Pages (from-to)317
ISSN1471-2334
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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