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Helle Vandkilde

The provenance, use and circulation of metals in the European Bronze Age: the state of debate

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  • M. Radivojević, University of Cambridge, University College London
  • ,
  • B.W. Roberts, Durham University
  • ,
  • E. Pernicka, Curt-Engelhorn-Zentrum Archäometrie
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  • Zofia A. Stos-Gale, University of Gothenburg
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  • Marcos Martinón-Torres, University of Cambridge, University College London, United Kingdom
  • Thilo Rehren, University College London, Science and Technology in Archaeology Research Center
  • ,
  • Peter Bray, University of Oxford
  • ,
  • Dirk Brandherm, Queen’s University
  • ,
  • Johan Ling, University of Gothenburg
  • ,
  • Jianjun Mei, University of Cambridge
  • ,
  • Helle Vandkilde
  • Kristian Kristiansen, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Stephen Shennan, University College London
  • ,
  • Cyprian Broodbank, University of Cambridge
Bronze is the defining metal of the European Bronze Age and has been at the center of archaeological and science-based research for well over a century. Archaeometallurgical studies have largely focused on determining the geological origin of the constituent metals, copper and tin, and their movement from producer to consumer sites. More recently, the effects of recycling, both temporal and spatial, on the composition of the circulating metal stock have received much attention. Also, discussions of the value and perception of bronze, both as individual objects and as hoarded material, continue to be the focus of scholarly debate. Here, we bring together the sometimes-diverging views of several research groups on these topics in an attempt to find common ground and set out the major directions of the debate, for the benefit of future research. The paper discusses how to determine and interpret the geological provenance of new metal entering the system; the circulation of extant metal across time and space, and how this is seen in changing compositional signatures; and some economic aspects of metal production. These include the role of metal-producing communities within larger economic settings, quantifying the amount of metal present at any one time within a society, and aspects of hoarding, a distinctive European phenomenon that is less prevalent in the Middle Eastern and Asian Bronze Age societies
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Archaeological Research
Volume27
Issue2
Pages (from-to)131-185
Number of pages55
ISSN1059-0161
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2019

    Research areas

  • Bronze Age, Circulation, Metal, Mining, Provenance, Recycling, Trade, LEAD-ISOTOPE DATA, ORE-DEPOSITS, EARLY METALLURGY, COPPER-ALLOYS, IBERIAN PENINSULA, MOVING METALS, ROMAN CIVILIZATIONS, ARTIFACTS, WEAR ANALYSIS, IRON-AGE

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