Hans Jürgen Hoffmann

Intralymphatic Immunotherapy: Update and Unmet Needs

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperReviewResearchpeer-review


  • Gabriela Senti, University Hospital Zurich
  • ,
  • Andreas U. Freiburghaus, University Hospital Zurich
  • ,
  • Désirée Larenas-Linnemann, Hospital Médica Sur
  • ,
  • Hans Jürgen Hoffmann
  • Amber M. Patterson, ENT
  • ,
  • Ludger Klimek, Center for Rhinology and Allergology
  • ,
  • Danilo Di Bona, University of Bari
  • ,
  • Oliver Pfaar, Center for Rhinology and Allergology, University Medical Centre Mannheim
  • ,
  • Lars Ahlbeck, Linköping University
  • ,
  • Mübeccel Akdis, Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research
  • ,
  • Dan Weinfeld, South Alvsborgs (Central) Hospital
  • ,
  • Francisco A. Contreras-Verduzco, National Institute of Pediatrics
  • ,
  • Alvaro Pedroza-Melendez, National Institute of Pediatrics
  • ,
  • Søren H. Skaarup
  • Sang Min Lee, Gachon University
  • ,
  • Lars Olaf Cardell, Karolinska Institutet
  • ,
  • Johannes M. Schmid
  • Ulla Westin, Lunds Universitet, Malmo University Hospital
  • ,
  • Ralph Dollner, Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet
  • ,
  • Thomas M. Kündig, University Hospital Zurich, Dermatologische Klinik

Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only allergy treatment that confers long-term symptom amelioration for patients suffering from allergy. The most frequently used allergen application route is subcutaneous injection (SCIT), commonly taken as the gold standard, followed by sublingual (SLIT) or oral (OIT) application of allergen preparations. This is an up-to-date review of the clinical evidence for a novel route of allergen application, i.e., directly into lymph nodes - intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT). The major advantages of ILIT over the current AIT approaches are its short duration and the low allergen doses administered. The whole treatment consists of merely 3 ultrasound-guided injections into inguinal lymph nodes 1 month apart. While the number of patients included in randomised controlled trials is still limited, the clinical results for ILIT are encouraging, but more clinical trials are needed, as well as more preclinical work for optimising formulations.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Pages (from-to)141-149
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019

Bibliographical note

© 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

    Research areas

  • Allergen-specific immunotherapy, Allergy, Clinical trials, Intralymphatic immunotherapy

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