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Frank Grundahl

Characterizing Lenses and Lensed Stars of High-magnification Single-lens Gravitational Microlensing Events with Lenses Passing over Source Stars

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  • J.-Y. Choi, Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Republic of Korea
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  • I.-G. Shin, Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Republic of Korea
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  • S.-Y. Park, Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763, Republic of Korea, Denmark
  • C. Han, Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Republic of Korea
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  • A. Gould, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • T. Sumi, Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
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  • A. Udalski, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • J.-P. Beaulieu, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre & Marie Curie, 75014 Paris, France
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  • R. Street, Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, CA 93117, USA
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  • M. Dominik, School of Physics & Astronomy, SUPA, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS, UK
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  • W. Allen, Vintage Lane Observatory, Blenheim, New Zealand
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  • L. A. Almeida, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais/MCTI, São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil
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  • M. Bos, Molehill Astronomical Observatory, North Shore, New Zealand
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  • G. W. Christie, Auckland Observatory, P.O. Box 24-180, Auckland, New Zealand
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  • D. L. Depoy, Department of Physics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA
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  • S. Dong, Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA
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  • J. Drummond, Possum Observatory, Patutahi, New Zealand
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  • A. Gal-Yam, Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute, Israel
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  • B. S. Gaudi, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • C. B. Henderson, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • L.-W. Hung, Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
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  • F. Jablonski, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais/MCTI, São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil
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  • J. Janczak, Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • C.-U. Lee, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Republic of Korea
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  • F. Mallia, Campo Catino Austral Observatory, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile
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  • A. Maury, Campo Catino Austral Observatory, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile
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  • J. McCormick, Farm Cove Observatory, Pakuranga, Auckland
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  • D. McGregor, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • L. A. G. Monard, Bronberg Observatory, Pretoria, South Africa
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  • D. Moorhouse, Kumeu Observatory, Kumeu, New Zealand
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  • J. A. Muñoz, Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
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  • T. Natusch, Auckland Observatory, Auckland, New Zealand
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  • C. Nelson, College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
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  • B.-G. Park, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Republic of Korea
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  • R. W. Pogge, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • T.-G. "TG" Tan, Perth Exoplanet Survey Telescope, Perth, Australia
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  • G. Thornley, Kumeu Observatory, Kumeu, New Zealand
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  • J. C. Yee, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • The μFUN Collaboration
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  • F. Abe, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • E. Barnard, Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
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  • J. Baudry, Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
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  • D. P. Bennett, University of Notre Dame
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  • I. A. Bond, Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland, New Zealand
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  • C. S. Botzler, Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
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  • M. Freeman, Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
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  • A. Fukui, Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, NAOJ, Okayama 719-0232, Japan
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  • K. Furusawa, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Japan
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  • F. Hayashi, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • J. B. Hearnshaw, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8020, New Zealand
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  • S. Hosaka, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • Y. Itow, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • K. Kamiya, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • P. M. Kilmartin, Mt. John Observatory, Lake Tekapo 8770, New Zealand
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  • S. Kobara, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • A. Korpela, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand
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  • W. Lin, Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland, New Zealand
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  • C. H. Ling, Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland, New Zealand
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  • S. Makita, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • K. Masuda, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • Y. Matsubara, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • N. Miyake, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • Y. Muraki, Department of Physics, Konan University, Nishiokamoto 8-9-1, Kobe 658-8501, Japan
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  • M. Nagaya, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • K. Nishimoto, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • K. Ohnishi, Nagano National College of Technology, Nagano 381-8550, Japan
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  • T. Okumura, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • K. Omori, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • Y. C. Perrott, Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
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  • N. Rattenbury, Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
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  • To. Saito, Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial Technology, Tokyo 116-8523, Japan
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  • L. Skuljan, Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland, New Zealand
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  • D. J. Sullivan, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand
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  • D. Suzuki, Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
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  • K. Suzuki, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • W. L. Sweatman, Institute of Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland, New Zealand
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  • S. Takino, Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan
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  • P. J. Tristram, Mt. John Observatory, Lake Tekapo 8770, New Zealand
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  • K. Wada, Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
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  • P. C. M. Yock, Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
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  • The MOA Collaboration
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  • M. K. Szymański, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • M. Kubiak, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • G. Pietrzyński, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • I. Soszyński, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • R. Poleski, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • K. Ulaczyk, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • Ł. Wyrzykowski, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • S. Kozłowski, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • P. Pietrukowicz, Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa, Poland
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  • The OGLE Collaboration
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  • M. D. Albrow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8020, New Zealand
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  • E. Bachelet, LATT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, 31400 Toulouse, France
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  • V. Batista, Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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  • C. S. Bennett, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
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  • R. Bowens-Rubin, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
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  • S. Brillant, European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago, Chile
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  • A. Cassan, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre & Marie Curie, 75014 Paris, France
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  • A. Cole, School of Math and Physics, University of Tasmania, GPO Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia
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  • E. Corrales, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre & Marie Curie, 75014 Paris, France
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  • Ch. Coutures, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre & Marie Curie, 75014 Paris, France
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  • S. Dieters, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre & Marie Curie, 75014 Paris, France
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  • D. Dominis Prester, Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, University of Rijeka, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
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  • J. Donatowicz, Department of Computing, Technical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
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  • P. Fouqué, LATT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, 31400 Toulouse, France
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  • J. Greenhill, School of Math and Physics, University of Tasmania, GPO Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia
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  • S. R. Kane, NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
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  • J. Menzies, South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory 7935, South Africa
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  • K. C. Sahu, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
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  • J. Wambsganss, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut (ARI), Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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  • A. Williams, Perth Observatory, Walnut Road, Bickley, Perth 6076, Australia
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  • M. Zub, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut (ARI), Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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  • The PLANET Collaboration
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  • A. Allan, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4QL, UK
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  • D. M. Bramich, European Southern Observatory, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
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  • P. Browne, School of Physics & Astronomy, SUPA, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS, UK
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  • N. Clay, Liverpool John Moores University
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  • S. Fraser, Liverpool John Moores University
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  • K. Horne, School of Physics & Astronomy, SUPA, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS, UK
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  • N. Kains, European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, 85748 Garching bei München, Germany
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  • C. Mottram, Liverpool John Moores University
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  • C. Snodgrass, European Southern Observatory, Vitacura 19, Santiago, Chile
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  • I. Steele, Liverpool John Moores University
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  • Y. Tsapras, Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Dr, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117, USA
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  • The RoboNet Collaboration
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  • K. A. Alsubai, Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha, Qatar
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  • V. Bozza, Department of Physics, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
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  • M. J. Burgdorf, Deutsches SOFIA Institut, Universität Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
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  • S. Calchi Novati, Department of Physics, University of Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
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  • P. Dodds, School of Physics & Astronomy, SUPA, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS, UK
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  • S. Dreizler, Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
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  • F. Finet, Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Allée du 6 Août 17, Sart Tilman, Bât. B5c, 4000 Liège, Belgium
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  • T. Gerner, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut (ARI), Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstrasse 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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  • M. Glitrup, Department of Physics & Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000 Århus C, Denmark
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  • F. Grundahl
  • S. Hardis, University of Copenhagen
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  • K. Harpsøe, University of Copenhagen
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  • T. C. Hinse, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348, Republic of Korea
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  • M. Hundertmark, School of Physics & Astronomy, SUPA, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS, UK
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  • U. G. Jørgensen, University of Copenhagen
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  • E. Kerins, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK
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  • C. Liebig, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut (ARI), Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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  • G. Maier, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut (ARI), Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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  • L. Mancini, Department of Physics, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
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  • M. Mathiasen, University of Copenhagen
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  • M. T. Penny, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK
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  • S. Proft, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut (ARI), Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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  • S. Rahvar, Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran, Iran
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  • D. Ricci, Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, 4000 Liège, Belgium
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  • G. Scarpetta, Department of Physics, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
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  • S. Schäfer, Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
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  • F. Schönebeck, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut (ARI), Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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  • Jesper Fælling Skottfelt, Astrofysik og Planetforskning, Denmark
  • J. Surdej, Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Sart Tilman, Bât. B5c, 4000 Liège, Belgium
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  • J. Southworth, Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK
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  • F. Zimmer, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut (ARI), Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
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  • The MiNDSTEp Consortium
We present the analysis of the light curves of nine high-magnification single-lens gravitational microlensing events with lenses passing over source stars, including OGLE-2004-BLG-254, MOA-2007-BLG-176, MOA-2007-BLG-233/OGLE-2007-BLG-302, MOA-2009-BLG-174, MOA-2010-BLG-436, MOA-2011-BLG-093, MOA-2011-BLG-274, OGLE-2011-BLG-0990/MOA-2011-BLG-300, and OGLE-2011-BLG-1101/MOA-2011-BLG-325. For all of the events, we measure the linear limb-darkening coefficients of the surface brightness profile of source stars by measuring the deviation of the light curves near the peak affected by the finite-source effect. For seven events, we measure the Einstein radii and the lens-source relative proper motions. Among them, five events are found to have Einstein radii of less than 0.2 mas, making the lenses very low mass star or brown dwarf candidates. For MOA-2011-BLG-274, especially, the small Einstein radius of θE ~ 0.08 mas combined with the short timescale of t E ~ 2.7 days suggests the possibility that the lens is a free-floating planet. For MOA-2009-BLG-174, we measure the lens parallax and thus uniquely determine the physical parameters of the lens. We also find that the measured lens mass of ~0.84 M &sun; is consistent with that of a star blended with the source, suggesting that the blend is likely to be the lens. Although we did not find planetary signals for any of the events, we provide exclusion diagrams showing the confidence levels excluding the existence of a planet as a function of the separation and mass ratio.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume751
Issue1
Number of pages14
ISSN0004-637X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2012

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