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Finn Plauborg

Leaching of human pathogens in repacked soil lysimeters and contamination of potato tubers under subsurface drip irrigation in Denmark

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  • Anita Forslund, Mikrobiologi, Denmark
  • Finn Plauborg
  • Mathias Neumann Andersen
  • Bo Markussen, Deparment of Basic Science and Environment, Denmark
  • Anders Dalsgaard, Departement of Veterinary Disease Biology, Denmark
The risk for contamination of potatoes and groundwater through subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water was explored in 30 large-scale lysimeters containing repacked coarse sand and sandy loam soils. The human pathogens, Salmonella Senftenberg, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli O157:H7, and the virus indicator Salmonella Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B, were added weekly through irrigation tubes for one month with low irrigation rates (8 mm per week). In the following six months lysimeters were irrigated with groundwater free of pathogens. Two weeks after irrigation was started, phage 28B was detected in low concentrations (2 pfu ml1) in leachate from both sandy loam soil and coarse sand lysimeters. After 27 days, phage 28B continued to be present in similar concentrations in leachate from lysimeters containing coarse sand, while no phage were found in lysimeters with sandy loam soil. The added bacterial pathogens were not found in any leachate samples during the entire study period of 212 days. Under the study conditions with repacked soil, limited macropores and low water velocity, bacterial pathogens seemed to be retained in the soil matrix and died-off before leaching to groundwater. However, viruses may leach to groundwater and represent a health risk as for some viruses only few virus particles are needed to cause human disease. The bacterial pathogens and the phage 28B were found on the potato samples harvested just after the application of microbial tracers was terminated. The findings of bacterial pathogens and phage 28 on all potato samples suggest that the main risk associated with subsurface drip irrigation with low quality water is faecal contamination of root crops, in particular those consumed raw.
Original languageEnglish
JournalWater Research
Volume45
Issue15
Pages (from-to)4367-4380
Number of pages14
ISSN0043-1354
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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